Published online Sep 26, 2021. doi: 10.12998/wjcc.v9.i27.8035
Peer-review started: April 15, 2021
First decision: May 11, 2021
Revised: May 15, 2021
Accepted: July 26, 2021
Article in press: July 26, 2021
Published online: September 26, 2021
Myopia and high myopia are global public health concerns. Patients with high myopia account for 0.5%-5.0% of the global population.
To examine diopters, axial length (AL), higher-order aberrations, and other ocular parameters in Chinese children with myopia, to analyze the influence of structural parameters associated with myopia on visual quality, and to provide a theoretical basis for the prevention and treatment of childhood myopia and high myopia.
This study included 195 children aged 6–17 years with myopia. The AL was measured with an ultrasonic ophthalmic diagnostic instrument, and the aberrations, corneal curvature (minimum K1, maximum K2, and average Km), central corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth, and anterior chamber angle were measured using a Sirius three-dimensional anterior segment analyzer. Using a standard formula, the corneal radius of curvature R (337.3/Km) and AL/R values were obtained.
The diopter of high myopia compared with low-middle myopia was correlated with age and AL (r = -0.336, -0.405, P < 0.001), and AL of high myopia was negatively correlated with K1, K2, and Km (r = -0.673, -0.661, and -0.680, respectively; P < 0.001), and positively correlated with age and the anterior chamber depth (r = 0.214 and 0.275, respectively; P < 0.05). AL/R was more closely related to diopter than AL in children with myopia, and 94.4% of children with myopia had an AL/R of > 3.00.
The ocular structural parameters of children change because of different diopters. AL/R is more specific and sensitive than AL in evaluating the refractive status of myopia in children. An AL/R of > 3.00 may be used as a specific index of myopia in children. There are differences in AL/R between high myopia and low-middle myopia, which can be used for the classification of ametropia. The degree of myopia has a certain influence on higher-order aberrations.
Core Tip: We explored the relationship between changes in ocular structural parameters and the development of myopia to provide foundational evidence for the study of myopia in children.