Published online Sep 26, 2021. doi: 10.12998/wjcc.v9.i27.7963
Peer-review started: March 5, 2021
First decision: March 25, 2021
Revised: April 3, 2021
Accepted: August 24, 2021
Article in press: August 24, 2021
Published online: September 26, 2021
Core Tip: Exophiala is a genus comprising several species of opportunistic black yeasts, which belongs to Ascomycotina, and it is a rare cause of fungal infections. The final identification of this organism should be achieved through a combination of several methods, including the newly introduced diagnostic analysis, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry, together with sequencing of the ribosomal ribonucleic acid internal transcribed spacer region of the fungi, and histological and culture findings. Most forms of disease caused by this pathogen require aggressive combination therapies: both surgical intervention and aggressive antifungal therapy with novel compounds and azoles are necessary for effective treatment. Today, detailed knowledge regarding this pathogen is scarce, so further studies are required in order to collect evidence.