Copyright ©The Author(s) 2021. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Clin Cases. Jul 26, 2021; 9(21): 5804-5811
Published online Jul 26, 2021. doi: 10.12998/wjcc.v9.i21.5804
Essentials of thoracic outlet syndrome: A narrative review
Min Cheol Chang, Du Hwan Kim
Min Cheol Chang, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu 42415, South Korea
Du Hwan Kim, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, College of Medicine, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 06973, South Korea
Author contributions: Kim DH and Chang MC contributed to the concept of the research; Kim DH and Chang MC drafted the manuscript; all authors read and approved the final version of the manuscript.
Conflict-of-interest statement: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article that was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:
Corresponding author: Du Hwan Kim, MD, PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, College of Medicine, Chung-Ang University, 102, Heukseok-ro, Dongjak-gu, Seoul 06973, South Korea.
Received: March 22, 2021
Peer-review started: March 22, 2021
First decision: April 29, 2021
Revised: May 6, 2021
Accepted: May 24, 2021
Article in press: May 24, 2021
Published online: July 26, 2021
Core Tip

Core Tip: Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is a group of disorders involving compression of the nerves and/or blood vessels in the thoracic outlet region. TOS is classified into three types, neurogenic, venous, and arterial, according to the primarily affected structure. In true neurogenic TOS, the T1 nerve root is more susceptible to damage than the C8 nerve root. The disputed TOS is categorized as a type of neurogenic TOS, but the diagnostic criteria for disputed TOS are lacking and controversial. Before confirming a diagnosis of disputed TOS, clinicians should exclude all other disorders that share common symptoms and features with disputed TOS.