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World J Clin Cases. Sep 26, 2022; 10(27): 9556-9572
Published online Sep 26, 2022. doi: 10.12998/wjcc.v10.i27.9556
Cardiovascular disease and COVID-19, a deadly combination: A review about direct and indirect impact of a pandemic
Rafael Vidal-Perez, Mariana Brandão, Michal Pazdernik, Karl-Patrik Kresoja, Myriam Carpenito, Shingo Maeda, Rubén Casado-Arroyo, Saverio Muscoli, Janine Pöss, Ricardo Fontes-Carvalho, Jose Manuel Vazquez-Rodriguez
Rafael Vidal-Perez, Jose Manuel Vazquez-Rodriguez, Servicio de Cardiología, Unidad de Imagen y Función Cardíaca, Complexo Hospitalario Universitario A Coruña Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red-Instituto de Salud Carlos III, A Coruña 15006, Spain
Mariana Brandão, Ricardo Fontes-Carvalho, Department of Cardiology, Centro Hospitalar de Gaia, Gaia 4400-020, Portugal
Michal Pazdernik, Intensive Care Unit, Department of Cardiology, Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine Prague, Prague 14021, Czech Republic
Karl-Patrik Kresoja, Janine Pöss, Heart Center Leipzig, University of Leipzig, Leipzig 04289, Germany
Myriam Carpenito, Unit of Cardiac Sciences, Department of Medicine, Campus Bio-Medico University of Rome, Rome 00128, Italy
Shingo Maeda, Arrhythmia Advanced Therapy Center, AOI Universal Hospital, Kawasaki 210-0822, Japan
Rubén Casado-Arroyo, Department of Cardiology, Hôpital Erasme, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels 1070, Belgium
Saverio Muscoli, Unit of Cardiology, Policlinico Tor Vergata, Rome 00133, Italy
Ricardo Fontes-Carvalho, Department of Surgery and Physiology, Faculty of Medicine of the University of Porto, Porto 4200-319, Portugal
Author contributions: Vidal-Perez R designed, edited, and wrote the final paper; Brandão M, Pazdernik M, Kresoja KP, Carpenito M, Maeda S, Casado-Arroyo R, Pöss J, and Fontes-Carvalho R performed the collection of the data and helped in writing the original draft; Vidal-Perez R and Vazquez-Rodriguez JM contributed to the critical revision and editing of the paper; all authors wrote, read, and approved the final manuscript.
Conflict-of-interest statement: All the authors declare that they have no conflict of interest that may affect the content of this article.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article that was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:
Corresponding author: Rafael Vidal-Perez, FACC, FESC, PhD, Reader (Associate Professor), Staff Physician, Servicio de Cardiología, Unidad de Imagen y Función Cardíaca, Complexo Hospitalario Universitario A Coruña Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red-Instituto de Salud Carlos III, As Xubias de Arriba - 84, A Coruña 15006, Spain.
Received: March 22, 2022
Peer-review started: March 22, 2022
First decision: April 13, 2022
Revised: April 25, 2022
Accepted: August 24, 2022
Article in press: August 24, 2022
Published online: September 26, 2022
Core Tip

Core Tip: The pre-existing cardiovascular disease is an important risk factor for a severe clinical course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and is associated with adverse outcomes. Furthermore, COVID-19 may exacerbate underlying heart disease and is frequently aggravated by cardiovascular complications, such as thromboembolic events and myocardial injury between others. COVID-19 also has been associated with a direct damage of the cardiovascular system. In this review, we will focus on the direct and indirect impact of the pandemic in relation with cardiovascular diseases to show that cardiovascular disease and COVID-19 really were a deadly combination.