Published online Mar 6, 2021. doi: 10.12998/wjcc.v9.i7.1524
Peer-review started: December 3, 2020
First decision: December 13, 2020
Revised: December 28, 2020
Accepted: January 15, 2021
Article in press: January 15, 2021
Published online: March 6, 2021
Short duration radiation treatment may have a valuable role in the treatment of patients assessed as too frail to undergo long duration chemoradiation. Studies have compared short duration vs long duration radiation treatment for rectal cancer. However, the results are contradictory. The present study explored the efficacy and safety of short duration radiation treatment for advanced rectal cancer.
The present study sought the optimal duration of radiation therapy for advanced rectal cancer to improve survival time and reduce complications and recurrence by comparing short duration vs long duration radiotherapy in patients with advanced rectal cancer.
This study aimed to discuss the efficacy and safety of short duration radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy for the treatment of advanced rectal cancer.
This study compared short duration radiation treatment (5 Gy in 5 fractions) with conventional long duration chemoradiation (1.8 to 2.0 Gy in 25 to 28 fractions) in 100 patients with IIIB or IV rectal cancer between December 2018 and December 2019. Expression of Runx3 and Ki-67, chemoradiotherapy-induced adverse reactions, operation indices, 1-yr survival, recurrence and distant metastasis were researched to see whether there was an advantage in the short duration radiation treatment group.
Almost no statistically significant differences were observed in the incidence and operation indices when comparing short duration radiation treatment with conventional long duration chemoradiation. However, the 1-yr survival rate was higher and the recurrence rate and distant metastasis rate were lower in the short duration radiation group than in the long duration group.
Based on the results, short duration radiation treatment seems to be effective for the treatment of advanced rectal cancer. In addition, clear survival benefits were observed with low incidence of recurrence and distant metastasis in the short duration radiation group.
Further studies in a multidisciplinary setting are warranted to identify whether the more convenient short duration radiation treatment should be considered if there are clear concerns regarding a patient’s physical or psychosocial ability to tolerate long duration chemoradiation to determine the most appropriate individualized therapeutic strategy.