Published online Oct 16, 2022. doi: 10.12998/wjcc.v10.i29.10501
Peer-review started: July 2, 2022
First decision: August 1, 2022
Revised: August 14, 2022
Accepted: August 30, 2022
Article in press: August 30, 2022
Published online: October 16, 2022
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignancy worldwide, and the mortality rate continues to rise each year. SMARCA4 expression has been associated with poor prognosis in various types of cancer; however, the specific mechanism of action of SMARCA4 in HCC needs to be fully elucidated.
Only few studies have successfully elucidated the mechanism of action of SMARCA4 in the progression of HCC. In the present study, we aimed to establish a SMARCA4-related competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network by mapping and analyzing the transcription profiles of SMARCA4 in HCC.
To provide valuable insights regarding HCC occurrence and development.
(1) Data sources and survival analysis; (2) Establishment of SMARCA4 related differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and delineation of functional enrichment analysis; (3) Prediction of miRNAs and lnRNAs upstream of SMARCA4; (4) Correlation of SMARCA4 and immune cells and the markers; and (5) The R packages used in this study included limma, reshape2, ggpubr, ggExtra, survival, survminer, and reshape2 whereas Cytoscape was used to establish the ceRNA network.
Pan-cancer expression levels of SMARCA4. Differential expression of SMARCA4 and its prognostic value in patients with HCC. Identification of DEGs and enrichment analysis between SMARCA4high and SMARCA4low patients. Identification of miRNAs upstream of SMARCA4. Detection and analysis of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) upstream of hsa-miR-139-5p. Relationship between the expression levels of SMARCA4 and immune cell infiltration. Relationship between expression levels of SMARCA4 and biomarkers of immune cells.
Herein, we demonstrated the overexpression of SMARCA4 in patients with HCC and in several immunotherapy-related pathways. Furthermore, an increased expression of SMARCA4 was found to be positively associated with immune cell infiltration, and a SMARCA4-specific ceRNA network was established, which was found to be involved in the progression of HCC.
We observed the overexpression of SMARCA4 in different pathways. Additionally, the overexpression of SMARCA4 was correlated to an increased immune cell infiltration and an augmented sensitivity to immunotherapy. Furthermore, a novel SMARCA4 ceRNA network (SNHG3/THUMP3-AS1-miR-139-5p-SMARCA4) was established in this study. This study could contribute towards the identification of predictive markers for immunotherapy and a novel mechanism of action for HCC treatment.