Published online Oct 16, 2022. doi: 10.12998/wjcc.v10.i29.10820
Peer-review started: July 21, 2022
First decision: September 5, 2022
Revised: September 5, 2022
Accepted: September 12, 2022
Article in press: September 12, 2022
Published online: October 16, 2022
Defining con-founders that affect the reliability of diagnostic tests for coronavirus disease 2019 is vital to breaking the chain of infection. The elderly population is a higher risk group for the emerging virus. However, gender seems to exert a critical role in modifying the infection risk among women owing to hormonal changes. The menopause transition is an exceptional period for older women where the protective and immunomodulatory effects of the estrogen hormone are lost. Accordingly, attention should be given to postmenopausal women since they will have an increased risk compared to their pre-menopausal peers.
Core Tip: One of the main strengths of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the limitation of tests confirming the infection. The rapid spread of the virus was accredited to false negative tests and asymptomatic carriers. The elderly are described as a high-risk group with increased morbidity and mortality rates. However, some discuss that COVID-19 is gender specific; as males suffer from a worse course of infection in comparison to age-matched females. COVID-19 diagnostic tests rely on patients’ immunological responses, we aimed to verify whether gender has an effect on the test reliability and if the test performance will be different among women in their menopausal years.