Published online Jan 26, 2022. doi: 10.4252/wjsc.v14.i1.104
Peer-review started: May 5, 2021
First decision: June 23, 2021
Revised: July 20, 2021
Accepted: December 25, 2021
Article in press: December 25, 2021
Published online: January 26, 2022
Type 1 diabetes (T1D), a chronic metabolic disease that lacks an effective cure, seriously endangers human health. In recent years, mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation has become an effective treatment for diabetes. Menstrual blood-derived endometrial stem cells (MenSC), a novel MSC type derived from the decidual endometrium during menstruation, are expected to become promising seeding cells for diabetes treatment due to their therapeutic effects on many diseases.
T1D is a highly prevalent disease and lacks an effective treatment. MenSC are expected to become promising seeding cells for diabetes treatment in the clinic.
The objective of our study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of MenSC on a T1D mouse model.
Streptozotocin (STZ) was used to induce the T1D mouse model. Then, improvements in the blood glucose levels and biochemical indexes of the mice were detected after the injection of MenSC via their tail vein. Moreover, the morphological and functional improvements in the livers, spleens and kidneys of MenSC-treated T1D model mice were examined.
In the STZ-induced T1D model, MenSC transplantation significantly improved the symptoms of T1D mice. Immunofluorescence and western blot analyses revealed that the numbers of insulin+ cells and CD31+ cells in the pancreas were significantly increased in MenSC-treated mice compared with control mice and inhibited the apoptosis of pancreatic cells. Additionally, protein arrays showed that MenSC transplantation significantly downregulated the serum levels of interferon γ and tumor necrosis factor α and upregulated the serum levels of interleukin-6 and vascular endothelial growth factor in the model mice. Subsequent histological and immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated that MSC transplantation systematically improved the morphologies and functions of the liver, kidneys, and spleen in the T1D model mice and effectively alleviated the complications of T1D.
The therapeutic effects of MenSC transplantation are equal to those of umbilical cord-derived MSC and can significantly improve the symptoms of T1D mice and exert protective effects on their main organs. MenSC are expected to become promising seeding cells for the treatment of T1D.
In the STZ-induced T1D mouse model, MenSC can effectively improve the symptoms and complications of T1D and lay a foundation for the clinical use of MenSC in the treatment of T1D.