Published online Nov 26, 2015. doi: 10.4252/wjsc.v7.i10.1215
Peer-review started: June 10, 2015
First decision: August 4, 2015
Revised: September 30, 2015
Accepted: October 23, 2015
Article in press: October 27, 2015
Published online: November 26, 2015
AIM: To evaluate adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) on four commercially available scaffold biomaterials.
METHODS: hDPSCs were isolated from human dental pulp tissues of extracted wisdom teeth and established in stem cell growth medium. hDPSCs at passage 3-5 were seeded on four commercially available scaffold biomaterials, SureOss (Allograft), Cerabone (Xenograft), PLLA (Synthetic), and OSTEON II Collagen (Composite), for 7 and 14 d in osteogenic medium. Cell adhesion and morphology to the scaffolds were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cell proliferation and differentiation into osteogenic lineage were evaluated using DNA counting and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay, respectively.
RESULTS: All scaffold biomaterials except SureOss (Allograft) supported hDPSC adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. hDPSCs seeded on PLLA (Synthetic) scaffold showed the highest cell proliferation and attachment as indicated with both SEM and DNA counting assay. Evaluating the osteogenic differentiation capability of hDPSCs on different scaffold biomaterials with ALP activity assay showed high level of ALP activity on cells cultured on PLLA (Synthetic) and OSTEON II Collagen (Composite) scaffolds. SEM micrographs also showed that in the presence of Cerabone (Xenograft) and OSTEON II Collagen (Composite) scaffolds, the hDPSCs demonstrated the fibroblastic phenotype with several cytoplasmic extension, while the cells on PLLA scaffold showed the osteoblastic-like morphology, round-like shape.
CONCLUSION: PLLA scaffold supports adhesion, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hDPSCs. Hence, it may be useful in combination with hDPSCs for cell-based reconstructive therapy.
Core tip: Recently, the plasticity of postnatal stem cells from dental origin including human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) has been suggested. Their osteogenic potential makes them valuable for craniofacial bone regeneration. hDPSCs can be easily isolated from dental medical wastes, extracted teeth, and expanded ex vivo. Combination of numerous postnatal stem cells and three-dimensional scaffold biomaterials has been used in bone tissue engineering. Selection of an ideal scaffold biomaterial is a challenging part of reconstructive surgeries. Current study aims to evaluate behavior of hDPSCs including adhesion, proliferation, morphology and differentiation on four different scaffold biomaterials. Our finding indicates that PLLA (Synthetic) scaffold supports adhesion, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hDPSCs. Therefore, it can be useful for the purpose of craniofacial tissue engineering.