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Copyright ©The Author(s) 2021. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Stem Cells. Oct 26, 2021; 13(10): 1480-1512
Published online Oct 26, 2021. doi: 10.4252/wjsc.v13.i10.1480
Considerations for the clinical use of stem cells in genitourinary regenerative medicine
Christophe Caneparo, Luis Sorroza-Martinez, Stéphane Chabaud, Julie Fradette, Stéphane Bolduc
Christophe Caneparo, Luis Sorroza-Martinez, Stéphane Chabaud, Julie Fradette, Stéphane Bolduc, Centre de Recherche en Organogénèse Expérimentale de l'Université Laval/LOEX, Centre de Recherche du CHU de Québec-Université Laval, Axe Médecine Régénératrice, Quebec G1J1Z4, Canada
Julie Fradette, Stéphane Bolduc, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Université Laval, Quebec G1V0A6, Canada
Author contributions: Caneparo C and Sorroza-Martinez L wrote the manuscript; both authors contributed equally; Chabaud S, Fradette J and Bolduc S, revised the manuscript; all the authors approved the submission.
Supported by the ‘Fonds de Recherche du Québec-Santé (FRQS) (C.C.); the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (to S.B. as PI and J.F. as co-PI), No. 258229; the Quebec Cell, Tissue and Gene Therapy Network-ThéCell (a thematic network supported by the FRQS).
Conflict-of-interest statement: The authors declare no conflict of interests for this article.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article that was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/Licenses/by-nc/4.0/
Corresponding author: Stéphane Bolduc, FRCS, MD, Deputy Director, Professor, Surgeon, Centre de Recherche en Organogénèse Expérimentale de l'Université Laval/LOEX, Centre de Recherche du CHU de Québec-Université Laval, Axe Médecine Régénératrice, CMDGT/ LOEX, Aile-R, CRCHU de Québec-Hôpital Enfant-Jésus, 1401, 18e Rue, Quebec G1J1Z4, Canada. stephane.bolduc@fmed.ulaval.ca
Received: April 30, 2021
Peer-review started: April 30, 2021
First decision: June 16, 2021
Revised: July 12, 2021
Accepted: September 14, 2021
Article in press: September 14, 2021
Published online: October 26, 2021
Abstract

The genitourinary tract can be affected by several pathologies which require repair or replacement to recover biological functions. Current therapeutic strategies are challenged by a growing shortage of adequate tissues. Therefore, new options must be considered for the treatment of patients, with the use of stem cells (SCs) being attractive. Two different strategies can be derived from stem cell use: Cell therapy and tissue therapy, mainly through tissue engineering. The recent advances using these approaches are described in this review, with a focus on stromal/mesenchymal cells found in adipose tissue. Indeed, the accessibility, high yield at harvest as well as anti-fibrotic, immunomodulatory and proangiogenic properties make adipose-derived stromal/SCs promising alternatives to the therapies currently offered to patients. Finally, an innovative technique allowing tissue reconstruction without exogenous material, the self-assembly approach, will be presented. Despite advances, more studies are needed to translate such approaches from the bench to clinics in urology. For the 21st century, cell and tissue therapies based on SCs are certainly the future of genitourinary regenerative medicine.

Keywords: Genitourinary tract, Cell therapy, Tissue engineering, Stem cells

Core Tip: Considering the lack of adequate tissue to perform repair or replacement of organ/tissue for urologic patients, new strategies must be developed, and stem cell-based therapies and tissue engineering approaches seem promising therapeutic alternatives. A complete overview of stem cells used in urology will be presented with a focus on adipose-derived stem cells which have particularly drawn the attention of researchers. Finally, an innovative technique allowing tissue reconstruction without exogenous material, the self-assembly approach, will be presented.