Copyright ©The Author(s) 2021.
World J Clin Cases. Oct 6, 2021; 9(28): 8295-8311
Published online Oct 6, 2021. doi: 10.12998/wjcc.v9.i28.8295
Table 1 Diet and Nutritional supplements as therapeutic targets
DASH dietHumanRandomised controlled studyNo difference in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome between groups[131]
Interventional studyReduced sodium load and caloric intake compared to baseline[14]
Gluten-free dietHumanDouble-blind gluten-free vs gluten-rich diet studyImproved functioning or decreased symptoms severity [118-121]
Clinical study Improvements in symptoms of schizophrenia and extrapyramidal side-effects[124]
Clinical studyno significant effect of gluten-free diet [122,123]
Ketogenic dietHumanCase reportComplete amelioration of schizophrenia symptom[130]
Omega-3 fatty acidRodentsKetamine model of schizophreniaWas protective against the development of behavioural changes [134]
Protective against decreased inhibition of the startle reflex, lipid peroxidation, and decreased antioxidant status in different brain regions[139]
HumanClinical studyDecrease in the rate of transition to full-threshold psychosis and a decrease in the positive and negative symptoms, compared to those administered placebo[95]
Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trialsOmega-3 fatty acid PUFA supplementation was effective in reducing clinical symptoms in persons with prodrome and/or first episode schizophrenia; mixed results were observed in persons with chronic schizophrenia[140]
Clinical study amongst hospitalised persons with acute violent schizophreniaNo significant effect of adjunctive omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on symptoms, when compared to conventional therapy alone[141]
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)HumanClinical studyImprovements in symptoms were observed in persons with early schizophrenia [136,142]
No benefits were observed in persons with chronic forms of schizophrenia[143,144]
ZincRodentKetamine model of schizophreniaReversal of schizophrenia-like behaviours[107]
Age-related decrease in ketamine-induced alterations in behaviours (open field memory and anxiety) acetylcholinesterase activity, and oxidative stress parameters[92]
MelatoninRodentKetamine model of schizophreniaReversal of schizophrenia-like symptoms, with benefits comparable to standard medications[29]