Case Report
Copyright ©The Author(s) 2021.
World J Clin Cases. Sep 26, 2021; 9(27): 8260-8267
Published online Sep 26, 2021. doi: 10.12998/wjcc.v9.i27.8260
Table 1 Laboratory examinations
Reference range
1.5 h after trauma
3 h after trauma
5 h after trauma
RBC, 1012/L3.8-5.13.863.732.54
WBC, 109/L3.5-9.518.3523.799.55
HG level, g/L115-15084.0092.0061.20
HCT level, %35-4528.7029.7019.82
PLC, 109/L125-350340.00243.0092.40
ALT level, U/L7-4019.1021.3018.70
AST level, U/L13-3526.2029.3045.00
Total protein level, g/L65-8566.3049.2041.30
Albumin level, g/L40-5541.6029.1026.50
Arterial blood gas level
Partial pressure of CO2, mmHg35-4530.5024.90
Partial pressure of O2, mmHg80-10080.50160.30
Table 2 Demographic profile of the reported fat embolism syndrome patients whose latent period was < 12 h
Latent period
Tsuru and Adachi[13]83/F55 minLeft distal femur fractureComatose and eventually died
Chen et al[17]31/M1 hRight femoral and tibia fractureComatose and eventually died
Scarpino et al[18]17/M2 hRight open femur and tibia fractureBrain death on hospital day 2
Our case29/F2.5 hThe middle and left femur fractureAfter 29 d in a coma, she became conscious. Returned to work at 6 mo after trauma
You et al[19]54/M2 h 53 minMultiple fracture (rib, clavicle, femur) and pulmonary contusion and pneumothoraxBrain death on hospital day 5
Dillerud[20]25/M3 hRight femur and left tibiofibular fractureMinimal memory impairment
Millen et al[21]17/F4 hMultiple fracture (rib, clavicle, femur, tibia, fibular, pubic rami, sacral ala)After 2 mo in a coma, she was alert, oriented, following with progressively improving cognition
Xu et al[22]63/W4 hRight tibia and fibula fracturesOne month later, the patient was discharged from the hospital without any residual neurological deficit
Yang et al[23]46/W5 hLeft femur fracturePatient consciousness was restored but language disorders were left
Cronin et al[24]26/M6 hRight open tibiofibular shaft fractureReturned to work at 3 mo after trauma
Paredes et al[4]54/M10 hMultiple fractures: Femoral shaft, radius, patella, metatarsalA residual mild cognitive impairment
Table 3 Gurd’s criteria
Gurd’s criteria
Major criteria
Petechial rash
Respiratory symptoms with radiographic changes
Central nervous system signs unrelated to trauma or other condition
Minor criteria
Retinal changes (fat or petechiae)
Renal abnormalities (oliguria, anuria, or lipiduria)
Acute thrombocytopenia
Acute decrease in hemoglobin
High erythrocyte sedimentation rate
Fat globules in sputum