Published online Oct 6, 2021. doi: 10.12998/wjcc.v9.i28.8374
Peer-review started: June 12, 2021
First decision: July 18, 2021
Revised: July 19, 2021
Accepted: August 18, 2021
Article in press: August 18, 2021
Published online: October 6, 2021
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disproportionately affected African Americans and Hispanics. The United States has one of the most diverse populations, exhibiting discrepancies in healthcare access, socioeconomic status, and wealth distribution, all of which lead to disparities in health outcomes across different groups, especially in minorities.
To evaluate the clinical manifestations, comorbidities, and laboratory parameters in COVID-19 patients and identify risk factors that may be related to poor prognosis.
To clarity whether clinical manifestations and laboratory parameters are related to the prognosis of COVID-19 positive African American (AA) patients.
This study is a retrospective analysis. Patient demographics, symptoms, underlying comorbidities, treatment, and outcomes were compared among AA, Caucasians, Hispanics, and other ethnic groups. Predictors of hospital mortality evaluated by using logistic and/or multiple logistic regression. SPSS version 26 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, United States) was used for this analysis.
A total of 386 COVID-19 positive patients, 257 (63.7%) were AAs, 102 (25.3%) Hispanics, and 26 (6.45%) Whites. The mortality rate was highest among the AAs (20.6%) and lowest among Hispanics (6.9%). Patients with shortness of breath (OR2 = 3.64, CI = 1.73-7.65) and elevated AST (OR2 = 8.01, CI = 3.79-16.9) elevated Procalcitonin (OR2 = 8.27, CI = 3.95-17.3), AST (OR2 = 8.01, CI = 3.79-16.9), ferritin (OR2 = 2.69, CI = 1.24-5.82), and Lymphopenia (OR2 = 2.77, CI = 1.41-5.45) had a high mortality rate. Glucocorticoid treatment was associated with higher mortality (OR2 = 5.40, CI = 2.72-10.7)
The African Americans were the most affected population due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in our study with high mortality. Predictors of poor outcomes in our study are Age > 50, shortness of breath, increased liver enzymes, CRP, Ferritin, Procalcitonin. Injudicious use of glucocorticoids resulted in poor outcomes. The presence of gastrointestinal symptoms did not increase disease severity.
In the future, we will continue to follow COVID-19 positive patients to analyze the causes of death and the risk factors that may lead to death. And we will devote ourselves to finding predictors related to the prognosis of minority patients with COVID-19.