Copyright ©The Author(s) 2017. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Clin Cases. May 16, 2017; 5(5): 159-171
Published online May 16, 2017. doi: 10.12998/wjcc.v5.i5.159
Evolution, current status and advances in application of platelet concentrate in periodontics and implantology
Amit Arvind Agrawal
Amit Arvind Agrawal, Department of Periodontics, MGV’s KBH Dental College and Hospital, Maharashtra 422002, India
Author contributions: Agrawal AA contributed all to this paper.
Conflict-of-interest statement: Agrawal AA declares no conflict of interest related to this publication.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article which was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:
Correspondence to: Amit Arvind Agrawal, MDS, MPhil, Professor, Department of Periodontics, MGV’s KBH Dental College and Hospital, Nasik, Maharashtra 422002, India.
Telephone: +91-98-22107562
Received: September 12, 2016
Peer-review started: September 13, 2016
First decision: October 21, 2016
Revised: January 29, 2017
Accepted: February 28, 2017
Article in press: March 2, 2017
Published online: May 16, 2017

Platelet concentrates (PC) [platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF)] are frequently used for surgical procedures in medical and dental fields, particularly in oral and maxillofacial surgery, plastic surgery and sports medicine. The objective of all these technologies is to extract all the elements from a blood sample that could be used to improve healing and promote tissue regeneration. Although leukocyte rich and leukocyte poor PRP’s have their own place in literature, the importance of non-platelet components in a platelet concentrate remains a mystery. PC have come a long way since its first appearance in 1954 to the T-PRF, A-PRF and i-PRF introduced recently. These PC find varied applications successfully in periodontics and implant dentistry as well. However, the technique of preparation, standing time, transfer process, temperature of centrifuge, vibration, etc., are the various factors for the mixed results reported in the literature. Until the introduction of a proper classification of terminologies, the PC were known by different names in different countries and by different commercial companies which also created a lot of confusion. This review intends to clarify all these confusion by briefing the exact evolution of PC, their preparation techniques, recent advances and their various clinical and technical aspects and applications.

Keywords: Platelet concentrates, Platelet rich plasma, Platelet-rich fibrin, Pure-platelet-rich fibrin, Leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin, Sticky bone, Platelet derived growth factors, Fibrin glue

Core tip: Platelets concentrates are known to be a rich source of growth factors with added antimicrobial efficacy due to incorporations of leukocytes. But does that mean that platelets or platelet poor/depleted plasma do not have any antimicrobial role? Are the mixed results reported in the literature due to deviations from the manufacturing protocols and nomenclature of platelet concentrates (PC)? Does technical factors related to centrifuge speed, time, temperature, vibrations, resonance, etc., affect the biological quality of the resultant platelet concentrate? A thorough knowledge evolution, preparation and applications of various PC will help clinicians to use this arsenal more efficiently.