Published online Jun 6, 2023. doi: 10.12998/wjcc.v11.i16.3921
Peer-review started: March 30, 2023
First decision: April 13, 2023
Revised: April 20, 2023
Accepted: April 27, 2023
Article in press: April 27, 2023
Published online: June 6, 2023
Taiwan has a high prevalence of tuberculosis and urothelial carcinoma. However, the simultaneous occurrence of both disorders in one patient is uncommon. Tuberculosis and urothelial carcinoma share some common risk factors and could demonstrate overlapping clinical manifestations.
Herein, we report the case of a patient who presented with fever, persistent hematuria, and pyuria. Chest computed tomography scans revealed a bilateral upper lobes cavitary lesion with fibrosis. Severe hydronephrosis of the right kidney and renal stones and cysts in the left kidney were observed. Initial microbiological testing was negative; however, a polymerase chain reaction assay of the urine confirmed a urinary tuberculosis infection. The patient was started on an anti-tuberculosis regimen. Ureteroscopy performed to resolve obstructive nephropathy revealed the incidental finding of a left middle-third ureteral tumor. Examination after biopsy and transurethral resection of the bladder tumor indicated urothelial carcinoma. The patient underwent laparoscopic nephroureterectomy, with bladder cuff excision for the right kidney and ureter, and holmium laser ablation of the ureteral lesion to preserve the left kidney and ureter. He has remained stable after the procedures.
Although establishing a causal relationship between tuberculosis and cancer is difficult, medical personnel should consider their correlation.
Core Tip: We have reported the case of a patient who presented with fever, persistent hematuria, and pyuria and was diagnosed with both urinary tuberculosis and urothelial carcinoma. Tuberculosis and urothelial carcinoma have some common risk factors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, chronic diseases, and malnutrition. Although it is difficult to establish a causal relationship between these two diseases, clinical medical personnel should consider the correlation between the two diseases.