Copyright ©The Author(s) 2022. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Clin Cases. Sep 16, 2022; 10(26): 9192-9206
Published online Sep 16, 2022. doi: 10.12998/wjcc.v10.i26.9192
Role of octreotide in small bowel bleeding
Anwar Khedr, Esraa Elaraby Mahmoud, Noura Attallah, Mikael Mir, Sydney Boike, Ibtisam Rauf, Abbas B Jama, Hisham Mushtaq, Salim Surani, Syed A Khan
Anwar Khedr, Department of Internal Medicine, BronxCare Health System, Bronx, NY 10457, United States
Esraa Elaraby Mahmoud, Department of Medicine, University of Sharjah, Sharjah 27272, United Arab Emirates
Noura Attallah, Abbas B Jama, Hisham Mushtaq, Syed A Khan, Critical Care Medicine, Mayo Clinic Health System, Mankato, MN 56001, United States
Mikael Mir, Sydney Boike, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, United States
Ibtisam Rauf, Department of Medicine, St. George School of Medicine, Grenada, West Indies
Salim Surani, Department of Medicine, Texas A&M University Health Science Center, Bryan, TX 77807, United States
Author contributions: Khedr A and Mahmoud EE were involved in data collection and initial, and revised manuscript draft; Attallah N, Mir M, Boike S, Rauf I, Jama AB, and Mushtaq H were involved in the literature search and writing segments of the manuscript; Surani S and Khan SA were involved in idea creation, supervision, manuscript critical revision and accuracy.
Conflict-of-interest statement: All authors have nothing to disclose.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article that was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:
Corresponding author: Salim Surani, FCCP, MD, MS, Professor, Department of Medicine, Texas A&M University Health Science Center, 8441 Riverside Pkwy, Bryan, TX 77807, United States.
Received: June 19, 2022
Peer-review started: June 19, 2022
First decision: July 12, 2022
Revised: July 30, 2022
Accepted: August 15, 2022
Article in press: August 15, 2022
Published online: September 16, 2022

Gastrointestinal bleeding accounts for a drastic negative impact on the quality of the patients’ lives as it requires multiple diagnostic and therapeutic interventions to identify the source of the bleeding. Small bowel bleeding is the least common cause of gastrointestinal bleeding. However, it is responsible for the majority of complaints from patients with persisting or recurring bleeding where the primary source of bleeding cannot be identified despite investigation. A somatostatin analog known as octreotide is among the medical treatment modalities currently used to manage small bowel bleeding. This medication helps control symptoms of gastrointestinal bleeding by augmenting platelet aggregation, decreasing splanchnic blood flow, and antagonizing angiogenesis. In this review article, we will highlight the clinical efficacy of octreotide in small bowel bleeding and its subsequent effect on morbidity and mortality.

Keywords: Octreotide, Small bowel, Hemorrhage, Angiodysplasia, Vascular malformations, Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

Core Tip: Small Bowel bleeding can result from vessel malformations, inflammation, varices, drugs, infections, tumors, or coagulopathy disorders. Octreotide, a synthetic somatostatin analog, is an effective therapy in stopping esophageal variceal bleeding by causing splanchnic vasoconstriction. Octreotide can also be used to control small intestinal variceal bleeding depending on similar mechanisms. Using Octreotide in treating other non-variceal etiologies of small gastrointestinal bleeding has been evaluated and reported with promising results.