Published online Sep 16, 2022. doi: 10.12998/wjcc.v10.i26.9192
Peer-review started: June 19, 2022
First decision: July 12, 2022
Revised: July 30, 2022
Accepted: August 15, 2022
Article in press: August 15, 2022
Published online: September 16, 2022
Gastrointestinal bleeding accounts for a drastic negative impact on the quality of the patients’ lives as it requires multiple diagnostic and therapeutic interventions to identify the source of the bleeding. Small bowel bleeding is the least common cause of gastrointestinal bleeding. However, it is responsible for the majority of complaints from patients with persisting or recurring bleeding where the primary source of bleeding cannot be identified despite investigation. A somatostatin analog known as octreotide is among the medical treatment modalities currently used to manage small bowel bleeding. This medication helps control symptoms of gastrointestinal bleeding by augmenting platelet aggregation, decreasing splanchnic blood flow, and antagonizing angiogenesis. In this review article, we will highlight the clinical efficacy of octreotide in small bowel bleeding and its subsequent effect on morbidity and mortality.
Core Tip: Small Bowel bleeding can result from vessel malformations, inflammation, varices, drugs, infections, tumors, or coagulopathy disorders. Octreotide, a synthetic somatostatin analog, is an effective therapy in stopping esophageal variceal bleeding by causing splanchnic vasoconstriction. Octreotide can also be used to control small intestinal variceal bleeding depending on similar mechanisms. Using Octreotide in treating other non-variceal etiologies of small gastrointestinal bleeding has been evaluated and reported with promising results.