Published online Jun 26, 2022. doi: 10.12998/wjcc.v10.i18.6338
Peer-review started: February 6, 2022
First decision: March 23, 2022
Revised: April 1, 2022
Accepted: May 12, 2022
Article in press: May 12, 2022
Published online: June 26, 2022
The application of stem cells is among the many strategies currently available for the treatment of multiple diseases. Stem cells are characterized as undifferentiated cells that have the ability to differentiate towards multiple lineages and self-renewal, among other attributes. Since the first umbilical cord stem cell transplant for the treatment of Fanconi anemia, the use of stem cells for the treatment of multiple diseases, including coronavirus disease 2019, has increased, showing promising results that require evaluation through research studies that include a longer follow-up time. Therefore, the main objective of this Letter is to provide an update on the use of stem cells in the treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, as well as identify the main challenges and limitations presented by this type of therapy.
Core Tip: The stem-cell-derived microvesicles improve the oxygenation conditions of patients, thereby avoiding mechanical oxygenation methods. They demonstrate the ability to modulate the inflammatory response by reducing the levels of proinflammatory cytokines within the first few hours of their intravenous application because these microvesicles contain cytokines, growth factors, and microRNAs, which function as anti-inflammatory agents.