Published online May 27, 2023. doi: 10.4331/wjbc.v14.i3.62
Peer-review started: March 14, 2023
First decision: April 7, 2023
Revised: April 16, 2023
Accepted: May 15, 2023
Article in press: May 15, 2023
Published online: May 27, 2023
Erythrocyte alloantibodies are mainly produced after immune stimulation, such as blood transfusion, pregnancy, and transplantation, and are the leading causes of severe hemolytic transfusion reactions and difficulty in blood grouping and matching. Therefore, antibody screening is critical to prevent and improve red cell alloantibodies. Routine tube assay is the primary detection method of antibody screening. Recently, erythrocyte-magnetized technology (EMT) has been increasingly used in clinical practice. This study intends to probe the application and efficacy of the conventional tube and EMT in red blood cell alloantibody titration to provide a reference for clinical blood transfusion.
To investigate the application value of conventional tube and EMT in red blood cell alloantibody titration and enhance the safety of blood transfusion practice.
A total of 1298 blood samples were harvested from blood donors at the Department of Blood Transfusion of our hospital from March 2021 to December 2022. A 5 mL blood sample was collected in tubing, which was then cut, and the whole blood was put into a test tube for centrifugation to separate the serum. Different red blood cell blood group antibody titers were simultaneously detected using the tube polybrene test, tube antiglobulin test (AGT), and EMT screening irregular antibody methods to determine the best test method.
Simultaneous detection was performed through the tube polybrene test, tube AGT and EMT screening irregular antibodies. It was discovered that the EMT screening irregular antibody method could detect all immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) irregular antibodies, and the results of manual tube AGT were satisfactory, but the operation time was lengthy, and the equipment had a large footprint. The EMT screening irregular antibody assay was also conducted to determine its activity against type O Rh (D) red blood cells, and the outcomes were satisfactory. Furthermore, compared to the conventional tube method, the EMT screening irregular antibody method was more cost-effective and had significantly higher detection efficiency.
With a higher detection rate, the EMT screening irregular antibody method can detect both IgG and IgM irregular antibodies faster and more effectively than the conventional tube method.
Core Tip: Irregular antibody screening has long been a routine blood test for blood donors in numerous developed countries. However, only a few blood stations in China have tried using a saline medium for this type of screening. Monoclonal anti-A (B) is a standard reagent for ABO blood grouping, but false positive or false negative reactions can occur, reducing the accuracy of the test. With the improvement of diagnostic techniques and medical levels, the erythrocyte-magnetized technology (EMT) screening irregular antibody method has been gradually applied in a range of clinical settings. This study analyzed blood samples from voluntary blood donors to explore the application value and effect of the conventional tube method and EMT in red blood cell alloantibody titration, with the goal of providing valuable references to improve the safety of clinical blood transfusion.