Published online Oct 27, 2021. doi: 10.4240/wjgs.v13.i10.1216
Peer-review started: January 25, 2021
First decision: May 3, 2021
Revised: May 10, 2021
Accepted: July 13, 2021
Article in press: July 13, 2021
Published online: October 27, 2021
The role of preoperative inflammatory biomarkers (PIBs) in predicting postoperative morbidity has been assessed in colorectal and otorhinolaryngeal surgery. However, data regarding the role that preoperative inflammatory biomarkers have on morbidity after pancreaticoduodenectomiy (PD) are less consistent.
To assess the utility of PIBs in predicting postoperative complications after pancreaticoduodenectomy.
A database of 317 consecutive pancreaticoduodenectomies performed from April 2003 to November 2018 has been retrospectively analyzed. Data regarding preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), derived NLR and C-reactive protein (CRP), and postoperative complications of 238 cases have been evaluated. Exclusion criteria were: age < 18-years-old, previous neoadjuvant treatment, absence of data about PIBs, concomitant hematological disorders, and presence of active infections at the moment of the surgery. PIBs were compared using Mann-Whitney’s test and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to define the cutoffs. The positive predictive value (PPV) was computed to evaluate the probability to develop complication. P-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant.
According to the literature findings, only four papers have been published reporting the relation between the inflammatory biomarkers and PD postoperative morbidity. A combination of preoperative and postoperative inflammatory biomarkers in predicting complications after PD and the utility of preoperative NLR in the development of postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) have been reported. The combination of PIBs and postoperative day-1 drains amylase has been reported to predict the incidence of POPF. According to our results, CRP values were significantly different between patients who had/did not have postoperative complications and abdominal collections (P < 0.05). Notably, patients with preoperative CRP > 8.81 mg/dL were at higher risk of both overall complications and abdominal collections (respectively P = 0.0037, PPV = 0.95, negative predictive value [NPV] = 0.27 and P = 0.016, PPV = 0.59, NPV = 0.68). Preoperative derived neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (dNLR) (cut off > 1.47) was also a predictor of abdominal collection (P = 0.021, PPV = 0.48, NPV = 0.71). Combining CRP and dNLR, PPV increased to 0.67. NLR (cut off > 1.65) was significantly associated with postoperative hemorrhage (P = 0.016, PPV = 0.17, NPV = 0.98).
PIBs may predict complications after PD. During postoperative care, PIB levels could influence decisions regarding the timing of drains removal and the selection of patients who might benefit from second level diagnostic exams.
Core Tip: Inflammatory markers are involved in cancer’s pathogenesis and growth. In addition, their role in predicting post-operative complications in colorectal and otorhinolaryngeal surgery has been reported. Here, the role of preoperative inflammatory biomarkers in predicting postoperative complication after pancreaticoduodenectomy has been investigated.