Copyright ©The Author(s) 2022.
World J Gastrointest Oncol. Jan 15, 2022; 14(1): 216-229
Published online Jan 15, 2022. doi: 10.4251/wjgo.v14.i1.216
Table 1 The summary of major clinical trials in gastric cancer involving immune checkpoint inhibitors
Therapeutic strategy
Trial identifier
Drug name
Type of cancer
Immune criterion
ORR (%)
Median PFS (mo)
Median OS (mo)
6-mo PFS (%)
1-year PFS (%)
6-mo OS (%)
1-year OS (%)
Anti-CTLA-4A Phase II trial of Tremelimumab[55]TremelimumabII18Metastatic gastric and esophageal adenocarcinomas5.52.834.83---33
NCT01585987[56]IpilimumabII57Advanced/metastatic gastric or gastroesophageal junction cancer1.8 (irBORR)2.72; 2.92 (irPFS)12.718.3; 22.3 (irPFS)8.4; 10.6 (irPFS)--
Anti-PD-1 or Anti-PD-L1 aloneKEYNOTE-012 (NCT01848834)[57]PembrolizumabIb39PD-L1-positive adenocarcinoma of the stomach or gastroesophageal junction221.911.426-6642
KEYNOTE-028 (NCT02054806)[58]PembrolizumabIb23Squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma of the esophagus or gastroesophageal junction in whom standard therapy failed and who had PD-L1–positive301.8730226040
KEYNOTE-061 (NCT02370498)[59]PembrolizumabIII296Advanced gastric or gastroesophageal junction cancerPD-L1 CPS ≥ 1161.59.1---40
JAVELIN solid tumor trial (NCT01772004) first-line switch-maintenance[62]AvelumabIb90Advanced gastric or gastroesophageal cancer6.72.811.12313-46.2
ATTRACTION-2 (NCT02267343)[2]NivolumabIII330Advanced gastric or gastroesophageal junction cancer refractory to, or intolerant of, at least two previous chemotherapy regimens--5.26--46.126.2
JAVELIN Gastric 100 (NCT02625610)[61]AvelumabIII249Locally advanced or metastatic gastric or gastroesophageal junction cancer-3.210.4----
JAVELIN Gastric 300 (NCT02625623)[60]AvelumabIII185Advanced gastric or gastroesophageal junction cancer2.21.44.6--41-
Immune checkpoints combination (Anti-PD-L1 and anti-CTLA4)CheckMate-032 (NCT01928394)[63]NivolumabI/II59Locally advanced or metastatic chemotherapy-refractory gastric, esophageal, or gastroesophageal junction cancer121.4--8-39
Nivolumab 1 mg/kg + ipilimumab 3 mg/kg49241.4--17-35
Nivolumab 3 mg/kg + ipilimumab 1 mg/kg5281.6--10-24
NCT02340975[64]Durvalumab + Tremelimumab (second-line)Ib/II44Chemotherapy-refractory gastric cancer or gastroesophageal junction cancer7.4-9.26.1--37
Durvalumab (second-line)440-3.40--4.6
Tremelimumab (second-line)228.3-7.720--22.9
Durvalumab + Tremelimumab (third-line)254-9.215--38.8
Immune checkpoint combined with chemotherapyKEYNOTE-059 (NCT02335411)[3,65]PembrolizumabII259Previously treated gastric and gastroesophageal junction cancer11.625.614.1-46.523.4
PD-L1 CPS ≥ 115.5------
PD-L1 CPS < 16.4------
Pembrolizumab + chemotherapy25Advanced gastric or gastroesophageal junction cancer606.613.868--52
PD-L1 CPS ≥ 168.8-11.1----
PD-L1 CPS < 137.5-19.8----
Immune checkpoint combined with target angiogenesisNCT02443324[67]Ramucirumab + pembrolizumabIa/b28Advanced/metastatic gastric or gastroesophageal junction cancer255.614.6----
PD-L1 CPS ≥ 1328.617.3---66.7
PD-L1 CPS < 1174.311.3---41.7