Copyright ©The Author(s) 2023.
World J Stem Cells. May 26, 2023; 15(5): 323-341
Published online May 26, 2023. doi: 10.4252/wjsc.v15.i5.323
Figure 1
Figure 1 Schematic presentation of cancer stem cell markers and their contribution to cancer development, progression, and resistance to therapy. Several cancer stem cell (CSC) markers and regulatory signaling pathways are involved in the sustenance and activation of self-renewal, immune evasion, and tumor metastasis, and contribution to tumor re-growth and therapy resistance. CSC markers serve as potential therapeutic targets for cancer treatment. CSCs: Cancer stem cells.
Figure 2
Figure 2 Schematic presentation of patient-derived organoid applications in cancer research. Patient-derived organoid (PDO) models can be utilized in multiple fields of cancer research including fundamental research, drug development, and clinical application. Cancer PDOs have been used to simulate the tumor tissue in vitro, study the disease mechanisms and gene expression patterns, and expose them to different drugs for efficacy screenings and drug discovery validations. Organoids are further used as in vitro pre-clinical models for personalized medicine and the generation of ‘living’ organoid biobanks. PDO culturing system serves as an advanced tool in the implementation and development of precision medicine.