Published online Jun 26, 2015. doi: 10.4252/wjsc.v7.i5.859
Peer-review started: December 2, 2014
First decision: January 20, 2015
Revised: February 14, 2015
Accepted: April 16, 2015
Article in press: April 20, 2015
Published online: June 26, 2015
Liver cirrhosis is characterized by distortion of liver architecture, necrosis of hepatocytes and regenerative nodules formation leading to cirrhosis. Various types of cell sources have been used for the management and treatment of decompensated liver cirrhosis. Knowledge of stem cells has offered a new dimension for regenerative therapy and has been considered as one of the potential adjuvant treatment modality in patients with end stage liver diseases (ESLD). Human fetal hepatic progenitor cells are less immunogenic than adult ones. They are highly propagative and challenging to cryopreservation. In our earlier studies we have demonstrated that fetuses at 10-18 wk of gestation age contain a large number of actively dividing hepatic stem and progenitor cells which possess bi-potent nature having potential to differentiate into bile duct cells and mature hepatocytes. Hepatic stem cell therapy for the treatment of ESLD is in their early stage of the translation. The emerging technology of decellularization and recellularization might offer a significant platform for developing bioengineered personalized livers to come over the scarcity of desired number of donor organs for the treatment of ESLD. Despite these significant advancements long-term tracking of stem cells in human is the most important subject nowadays in order to answer several unsettles issues regarding the route of delivery, the choice of stem cell type(s), the cell number and the time-point of cell delivery for the treatment in a chronic setting. Answering to these questions will further contribute to the development of safer, noninvasive, and repeatable imaging modalities that could discover better cell therapeutic approaches from bench to bed-side. Combinatorial approach of decellularization and nanotechnology could pave a way towards the better understanding in determination of cell fate post-transplantation.
Core tip: Liver cirrhosis is characterized by distortion of liver architecture, necrosis of hepatocytes and regenerative nodules formation leading to cirrhosis. The available treatment modalities are not very effective against liver cirrhosis. Stem cells are considered one of the potential adjuvant treatment modality in liver cirrhosis patients. Fetal hepatic stem cells transplantation in liver cirrhosis has emerged as an alternative to organ transplantation. However long-term stem cells labeling and tracking is needed for cell fate determination after transplantation. Decellularization technology provides a novel tool to develop bioengineered personalized livers to accomplish the shortage of donor livers.