Published online Jun 26, 2015. doi: 10.4252/wjsc.v7.i5.852
Peer-review started: January 16, 2015
First decision: February 7, 2015
Revised: February 14, 2015
Accepted: April 1, 2015
Article in press: April 7, 2015
Published online: June 26, 2015
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), which include all diseases of the heart and circulation system, are the leading cause of deaths on the globally. During the development of CVDs, choric inflammatory, lipid metabolism disorder and endothelial dysfunction are widely recognized risk factors. Recently, the new treatment for CVDs that designed to regenerate the damaged myocardium and injured vascular endothelium and improve recovery by the use of stem cells, attracts more and more public attention. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a family of enzymes that remove acetyl groups from lysine residues of histone proteins allowing the histones to wrap the DNA more tightly and commonly known as epigenetic regulators of gene transcription. HDACs play indispensable roles in nearly all biological processes, such as transcriptional regulation, cell cycle progression and developmental events, and have originally shown to be involved in cancer and neurological diseases. HDACs are also found to play crucial roles in cardiovascular diseases by modulating vascular cell homeostasis (e.g., proliferation, migration, and apoptosis of both ECs and SMCs). This review focuses on the roles of different members of HDACs and HDAC inhibitor on stem cell/ progenitor cell differentiation toward vascular cell lineages (endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and Cardiomyocytes) and its potential therapeutics.
Core tip: Stem cell differentiation toward vascular cell lineages is an area of important active research at present. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are found to play important roles in cardiovascular diseases. Through modulating the homeostasis of acetylation status in histone and non-histone proteins and regulating grow factor activities, HDACs participate in stem cell differentiation and vascular cell homeostasis. In this review we provide an update on the roles of HDACs and HDAC inhibitors on stem cell differentiation toward vascular cell lineages.