Published online Dec 26, 2019. doi: 10.4252/wjsc.v11.i12.1104
Peer-review started: March 4, 2019
First decision: August 1, 2019
Revised: August 25, 2019
Accepted: September 13, 2019
Article in press: September 13, 2019
Published online: December 26, 2019
Stem cells have shown great potential in vascular repair. Numerous evidence indicates that mechanical forces such as shear stress and cyclic strain can regulate the adhesion, proliferation, migration, and differentiation of stem cells via serious signaling pathways. The enrichment and differentiation of stem cells play an important role in the angiogenesis and maintenance of vascular homeostasis. In normal tissues, blood flow directly affects the microenvironment of vascular endothelial cells (ECs); in pathological status, the abnormal interactions between blood flow and vessels contribute to the injury of vessels. Next, the altered mechanical forces are transduced into cells by mechanosensors to trigger the reformation of vessels. This process occurs when signaling pathways related to EC differentiation are initiated. Hence, a deep understanding of the responses of stem cells to mechanical stresses and the underlying mechanisms involved in this process is essential for clinical translation. In this the review, we provide an overview of the role of stem cells in vascular repair, outline the performance of stem cells under the mechanical stress stimulation, and describe the related signaling pathways.
Core tip: Stem cells and biomechanical stresses are very important for the success of stem cell-based therapy. In this review paper, we first summarize the application of stem cells for vascular repair, then discuss the response of stem cells to the biomechanical stresses in blood vessels, and finally describe the underlying mechanisms. This paper should be very beneficial to researchers in this field, as it provides a deeper understanding of the interactions between stem cells and biomechanical stresses for vascular repair.