Copyright ©The Author(s) 2022. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Gastroenterol. Mar 7, 2022; 28(9): 881-896
Published online Mar 7, 2022. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v28.i9.881
Innate and adaptive immune escape mechanisms of hepatitis B virus
Hua-Jun Zhao, Yi-Fei Hu, Qiu-Ju Han, Jian Zhang
Hua-Jun Zhao, Yi-Fei Hu, Qiu-Ju Han, Jian Zhang, Institute of Immunopharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan 250012, Shandong Province, China
Author contributions: Zhao HJ and Zhang J designed the structure of this review; Zhao HJ wrote the paper; Hu YF contributed to the literature review; Zhao HJ, Han QJ, and Zhang J revised the paper; All authors approved the final version.
Supported by National Science Foundation for Young Scientists of China, No. 82001687; National Major Science and Technology Project for Control and Prevention of Major Infectious Diseases, No. 2018ZX10301401; National Postdoctoral Program for Innovative Talents, No. BX20190192; China Postdoctoral Science Foundation, No. 2020M672064; and National Basic Research Program of China, No. 2013CB531503.
Conflict-of-interest statement: The authors have no potential conflicts of interest to declare.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article that was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:
Corresponding author: Jian Zhang, PhD, Professor, Institute of Immunopharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, No. 44 Wenhua West Road, Jinan 250012, Shandong Province, China.
Received: February 4, 2021
Peer-review started: February 4, 2021
First decision: July 27, 2021
Revised: August 9, 2021
Accepted: January 29, 2022
Article in press: January 29, 2022
Published online: March 7, 2022
Core Tip

Core Tip: Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection is an international health problem. Current clinical CHB treatment strategies can partly inhibit and eliminate hepatitis B virus (HBV), but cannot achieve long-lasting immune control of the virus. Persistent CHB infection arises as a consequence of the complex interactions between HBV and the host innate and adaptive immune systems. Therefore, it is important to understand the immunological mechanisms involved in CHB infection. In this review, we detail the immune biological characteristics and escape mechanisms of HBV and discuss novel immune-based therapies.