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World J Gastroenterol. Oct 28, 2022; 28(40): 5784-5800
Published online Oct 28, 2022. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v28.i40.5784
Heterogeneity of immune control in chronic hepatitis B virus infection: Clinical implications on immunity with interferon-α treatment and retreatment
Guo-Qing Yin, Ke-Ping Chen, Xiao-Chun Gu
Guo-Qing Yin, Ke-Ping Chen, Xiao-Chun Gu, Center of Hepatology, Zhong-Da Hospital, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009, Jiangsu Province, China
Author contributions: All authors contributed to the study conception and design; The first draft of the manuscript was written by Yin GQ; All authors commented on previous versions of the manuscript, they all read and approved the final manuscript.
Conflict-of-interest statement: All the authors report no relevant conflicts of interest for this article.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article that was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:
Corresponding author: Guo-Qing Yin, MD, PhD, Chief Doctor, Chief Physician, Center of Hepatology, Zhong-Da Hospital, Southeast University, No. 87 Dingjiaqiao, Nanjing 210009, Jiangsu Province, China.
Received: May 10, 2022
Peer-review started: May 10, 2022
First decision: August 20, 2022
Revised: September 8, 2022
Accepted: October 9, 2022
Article in press: October 9, 2022
Published online: October 28, 2022
Core Tip

Core Tip: Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-specific immune control is characterized by distinct phenotypical and functional profiles. Owing to the negative feedback associated with all immune responses in an infected host, immunomodulators regulating a single immune pathway are unlikely to fully restore antiviral immunity. Interferon-α (IFN-α) treatment was shown to simultaneously affect multiple immune pathways and various immune cell populations in the host and integrate signals toward improving HBV-specific immune control. In addition, IFN-α retreatment was shown to improved functional cure rates, indicating that could gradually enhance the overall immune control.