Copyright ©The Author(s) 2021.
World J Clin Cases. Jan 16, 2021; 9(2): 308-320
Published online Jan 16, 2021. doi: 10.12998/wjcc.v9.i2.308
Table 1 Hydrophobicity of bile acid increases with the decrease of OH groups
Types of bile acids
Table 2 Central receptor involved in bile acid signaling
Cardiovascular tissue
Regulatory mechanism
Direct action
FXRLiver, kidney, gastrointestinalArteries, cardiomyocytesCDCA, LCA, DCARegulates BSEP expression and participates in the process of liver injury, activates I-BABP expression to mediate cholesterol secretion, inhibits vascular inflammation, decreases lipogenesis synthesis, increases lipoprotein clearance to prevent atherosclerosis, ameliorates post-MI cardiac dysfunction and remodelingNo[14-16]
PXR,VDRLivert-TubulescardiomyocytesLCADown-regulates CYP7A1 expression to eliminate BA toxicity, maintains lipid metabolism, regulates intracellular calcium flow and contractile forces, maintains the normal operation of cardiomyocytesNo[17-19]
MNervous, intestinal, gastrointestinalAorta, cardiomyocytesTC, LCT, TCAStimulates acetylcholine-induced inositol phosphorylation and MAP kinase phosphorylation, inhibits cAMP, amplitude, reduces CM contractionYes[20,21]
S1PLiver, nervous, immune Endothelial smooth muscle, cardiomyocytesTCA, UDCAInhibits formation of cAMP and antagonizes adrenergic receptor-mediated contractile force, protects heart from ischemia/reperfusion injury, involved in remodeling and differentiation of cardiac fibroblastsNo[22,23]
TGR5Liver, glands, fat, muscle, enteric, immuneAortic endothelialCA, DCA, CDCA, TLCA, TCDCAInhibits the secretion of TNF induced by LPS, downregulates GSK3 and upregulates PKB associated with cardiac hypertrophy, metabolic transformation of energy in cardiomyocytesYes[24,25]
BK channelLiver, brainEndothelial, cardiomyocytesLCACause vasodilation in liver and cerebral artery, plays role in diabetes, through mitochondrial BK channels confer cardioprotectionYes[26-28]