Published online Nov 20, 2021. doi: 10.5662/wjm.v11.i6.278
Peer-review started: March 28, 2021
First decision: June 17, 2021
Revised: July 13, 2021
Accepted: September 27, 2021
Article in press: September 27, 2021
Published online: November 20, 2021
Core Tip: Survival of preterm infants has been steadily improving because of the many recent advances in perinatal and neonatal medicine. However, neither the growth of survivors reaches the ideal target level of the normal foetus of the same gestational age, nor is the optimum postnatal weight gain often achieved. In the preterm neonate, the brain is the most metabolically demanding organ. Growth is a marker of nutritional status and is also independently associated with long-term neurodevelopment. In this review, we will discuss the direct role of nutrition and the effect of general and specific nutritional interventions on neurodevelopment.