Copyright ©The Author(s) 2022. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Virol. Jan 25, 2022; 11(1): 20-39
Published online Jan 25, 2022. doi: 10.5501/wjv.v11.i1.20
COVID-19: A pluralistic and integrated approach for efficient management of the pandemic
Nouhoum Bouare, Daouda Kassim Minta, Abdoulaye Dabo, Christiane Gerard
Nouhoum Bouare, Biomedical Sciences Researcher, National Institute of Public Health, Bamako 1771, Mali
Daouda Kassim Minta, Department of Infectiology, CHU PointG, Bamako 333, Mali
Abdoulaye Dabo, Department Epidemiology & Infectiology Disease, Faculty Medicine & Dentistry, CNRST/Univ Bamako, Bamako 3052, Mali
Christiane Gerard, Formerly Responsible for the Blood Bank, CHU-Liège, University of Liège, Liège 4000, Belgium
Author contributions: Bouare N contributed to manuscript drafting, reviewing and reading the final version; Minta DK and Dabo A contributed to manuscript reviewing and reading the final version; Gerard C contributed to manuscript drafting, reviewing and reading the final version.
Conflict-of-interest statement: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article that was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:
Corresponding author: Nouhoum Bouare, DSc, PhD, Research Scientist, Biomedical Sciences Researcher, National Institute of Public Health, Hippodrome Rue Hamilcar Cabral, Bamako 1771, Mali.
Received: April 21, 2021
Peer-review started: April 21, 2021
First decision: July 27, 2021
Revised: August 10, 2021
Accepted: December 28, 2021
Article in press: December 28, 2022
Published online: January 25, 2022

The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which triggered the ongoing pandemic, was first discovered in China in late 2019. SARS-CoV-2 is a respiratory virus responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that often manifests as a pneumonic syndrome. In the context of the pandemic, there are mixed views on the data provided by epidemiologists and the information collected by hospital clinicians about their patients. In addition, the literature reports a large proportion of patients free of pneumonia vs a small percentage of patients with severe pneumonia among confirmed COVID-19 cases. This raises the issue of the complexity of the work required to control or contain the pandemic. We believe that an integrative and pluralistic approach will help to put the analyses into perspective and reinforce collaboration and creativity in the fight against this major scourge. This paper proposes a comprehensive and integrative approach to COVID-19 research, prevention, control, and treatment to better address the pandemic. Thus, this literature review applies a pluralistic approach to fight the pandemic.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, Pandemic, Pluralistic approach, Global approach, Efficient management

Core Tip: Pandemic control requires optimal knowledge of the pathogen, infection routes, mode of transmission, and intervention strategies. The contagiousness of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) complicates pandemic control or containment because asymptomatic carriers, incubating patients, and recovered patients are all potentially contagious. This literature review proposes and justifies the value of a pluralistic and integrative approach to COVID-19 research, prevention, control and treatment.