Prospective Study
Copyright ©The Author(s) 2024. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Psychiatry. Feb 19, 2024; 14(2): 308-314
Published online Feb 19, 2024. doi: 10.5498/wjp.v14.i2.308
Risk factors for cognitive impairment in patients with chronic kidney disease
Xiao-Hui Wang, Yong He, Huan Zhou, Ting Xiao, Ran Du, Xin Zhang
Xiao-Hui Wang, Yong He, Huan Zhou, Ting Xiao, Xin Zhang, Department of Nephrology, The Fifth Hospital of Wuhan, Wuhan 430050, Hubei Province, China
Ran Du, Department of Nephrology, The Central Hospital of Enshi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture, Enshi 445000, Hubei Province, China
Co-first authors: Xiao-Hui Wang and Ran Du.
Author contributions: Wang XH, Zhang X, and Du R contributed equally to this work; Wang XH, He Y, Zhou H, Xiao T, Du R, and Zhang X designed the research study, and performed the research; Wang XH and Zhang X contributed new reagents and analytic tools; Wang XH, Zhou H, and Zhang X analyzed the data and wrote the manuscript; and all authors have read and approved the final manuscript.
Institutional review board statement: The study was reviewed and approved by the Fifth Hospital of Wuhan Institutional Review Board.
Clinical trial registration statement: The study was registered at the Clinical Trial Center ( with registration number (researchregistry10159).
Informed consent statement: All study participants, or their legal guardian, provided informed written consent prior to study enrollment.
Conflict-of-interest statement: All the authors report no relevant conflicts of interest for this article.
Data sharing statement: No additional data are available.
CONSORT 2010 statement: The authors have read the CONSORT 2010 Statement, and the manuscript was prepared and revised according to the CONSORT 2010 Statement.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article that was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:
Corresponding author: Xin Zhang, MMed, Associate Chief Physician, Department of Nephrology, The Fifth Hospital of Wuhan, No. 122 Xianzheng Street, Hanyang District, Wuhan 430050, Hubei Province, China.
Received: October 30, 2023
Peer-review started: October 30, 2023
First decision: November 8, 2023
Revised: December 1, 2023
Accepted: January 5, 2024
Article in press: January 5, 2024
Published online: February 19, 2024
Core Tip

Core Tip: The prevalence of cognitive impairment in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) ranges from 10% to 40% depending on the method of cognitive impairment assessment and CKD stage. The risk factors affecting cognitive dysfunction were age, 60-79 years and ≥ 80 years; education, primary school education or less; marital status, divorced or widowed; payment method, self-funded; hypertension; and CKD.