Published online Jan 20, 2022. doi: 10.5493/wjem.v12.i1.1
Peer-review started: July 4, 2021
First decision: October 18, 2021
Revised: October 21, 2021
Accepted: January 8, 2022
Article in press: January 8, 2022
Published online: January 20, 2022
The resolution of inflammation is an active process, guided by specialized pro-resolution lipid mediators (SPMs). These mediators originate from polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as omega-3. Sufficient evidence suggests that the beneficial effects attributed to omega-3 are, at least in part, the result of the immunomodulatory action of the SPMs, which act systemically by overcoming inflammation and repairing tissue damage, without suppressing the immune response. Recent studies suggest that an imbalance in the synthesis and/or activity of these compounds may be associated with the pathogenesis of several inflammatory conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Thus, this review highlights the advances made in recent years with regard to the endo-genous synthesis and the biological role of lipoxins, resolvins, protectins, and maresins, as well as their precursors, in the regulation of inflammation; and provides an update on the participation of these mediators in the development and evolution of IBD and the therapeutic approaches that these immunomodulating substances are involved in this context.
Core Tip: Much progress has been made in recent decades regarding the understanding of mediators involved in the exacerbated inflammatory response. We discuss the role of specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators and their precursors in the etiology and management of chronic inflammatory diseases, in particular, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Our research is based on the data pointed out by the literature and we suggest new therapeutic approaches using these immunomodulatory substances in IBD.