Published online Jan 27, 2023. doi: 10.4240/wjgs.v15.i1.94
Peer-review started: November 14, 2022
First decision: December 1, 2022
Revised: December 6, 2022
Accepted: December 23, 2022
Article in press: December 23, 2022
Published online: January 27, 2023
Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is a treatment for early gastric cancer with the advantages of small invasion, fewer complications, and a low local recurrence rate. However, there is a high risk of complications such as bleeding and perforation, and the operation time is also longer. ESD operation time is closely related to bleeding and perforation.
To investigate the influencing factors associated with ESD operation time and postoperative delayed hemorrhage to provide a reference for early planning, early identification, and prevention of complications.
We conducted a retrospective study based on the clinical data of 520 patients with early gastric cancer in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical University from January 2019 to December 2021. The baseline data, clinical features, and endoscopic and pathological characteristics of patients were collected. The multivariate linear regression model was used to investigate the influencing factors of ESD operation time. Logistic regression analysis was carried out to evaluate the influencing factors of postoperative delayed hemorrhage.
The multivariate analysis of ESD operation time showed that the maximum lesion diameter could affect 8.815% of ESD operation time when other influencing factors remained unchanged. The operation time increased by 3.766% or 10.247% if the lesion was mixed or concave. The operation time increased by 4.417% if combined with an ulcer or scar. The operation time increased by 3.692% if combined with perforation. If infiltrated into the submucosa, it increased by 2.536%. Multivariate analysis of delayed hemorrhage after ESD showed that the maximum diameter of the lesion, lesion morphology, and ESD operation time were independent influencing factors for delayed hemorrhage after ESD. Patients with lesion ≥ 3.0 cm (OR = 3.785, 95%CI: 1.165-4.277), lesion morphology-concave (OR = 10.985, 95%CI: 2.133-35.381), and ESD operation time ≥ 60 min (OR = 2.958, 95%CI: 1.117-3.526) were prone to delayed hemorrhage after ESD.
If the maximum diameter of the lesion in patients with early gastric cancer is ≥ 3.0 cm, and the shape of the lesion is concave, or accompanied by an ulcer or scar, combined with perforation, and infiltrates into the submucosa, the ESD operation will take a longer time. When the maximum diameter of the lesion is ≥ 3.0 cm, the shape of the lesion is concave in patients and the operation time of ESD takes longer time, the risk of delayed hemorrhage after ESD is higher.
Core Tip: Gastric cancer is a common malignant tumor of the digestive system worldwide. Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is the first-line treatment for early gastric cancer. However, the long operation time of ESD and its postoperative delayed hemorrhage are the major complications, which can cause more severe cardiovascular complications, such as bradycardia and hypotension. In this retro