Copyright ©The Author(s) 2015.
World J Gastrointest Oncol. Nov 15, 2015; 7(11): 338-346
Published online Nov 15, 2015. doi: 10.4251/wjgo.v7.i11.338
Table 1 Cellular mediators of innate and adaptive immune system in biliary tract carcinoma
Cell typeFrequency of infiltrationClinical significanceRef.
Natural killer cells19.1%-33% overallNo correlation with disease stage, grade, or survival[12,13]
20% of ICC, 21% of ECC, 16% of GBC
Mast cells2% of ICC, 2.5% of ECC, 8.5% of GBCNo correlation with survival[13]
Macrophages87% of ICC, 70% of ECC, and 71% of GBCAssociated with more advanced disease[13]
Dendritic cellsNot determinedAssociated with improved survival[12,14]
CD4+ helper T-lymphocytes43% of ICC, 30% of ECC, and 34%-51% of GBCAssociated with reduced probability of metastases and improved survival in ECC[12,13]
CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocytes46% of ICC, 49%-55% of ECC, and 38%-51% of GBCAssociated with reduced probability of metastases and improved survival in ECC[12,13,15]
B-lymphocytes /plasma cells4.5% of ICC, 6.7% of ECC, and 10.1% of GBCAssociated with improved survival[13]
Table 2 Trials of immunotherapy in biliary tract carcinoma
ImmunotherapyTreatment regimensPhasenTypes of BTCOS (mo)PFS (mo)Ref.
Peptide-based vaccine (WT1)Peptide vaccine + gemcitabineI25Pancreatic, GBC, ICC, ECC9.3--[44]
Peptide-based vaccine (WT1)Peptide vaccine monotherapyI9Pancreatic, CC----[45]
Peptide-based vaccine (NUF2, CDH3, KIF20A)Peptide vaccine triple therapyI9GBC, ICC, ECC9.73.4[46]
Peptide-based vaccine (LY6K, TTK, IGF2BP3, DEPDC1)Peptide vaccine quadruple therapyI9GBC, ICC, ECC12.35[47]
Peptide-based vaccine (Many)Personalized peptide vaccinationII25GBC, ICC, ECC6.7--[48]
+/- chemotherapy
Dendritic cell-based vaccine (MUC1)Dendritic cell vaccinationI/II12Pancreatic, CC26--[49]
+/- chemotherapy +/- radiotherapy
Dendritic cell-based vaccine (WT1, MUC1)Peptide vaccine--65GBC, ICC, ECC----[50]
+/- chemotherapy
Dendritic cell-based vaccine, adoptive immunotherapySurgery + dendritic cell vaccine + T-cell transfer vs surgery alone--36ICC31.918.3[51]
Interleukin-2Induction cisplatin + gemcitabine, consolidation capecitabine + radiation, and maintenance IL-2 + 13-cis-retinoic acidII54Pancreatic, GBC, CC> 27.516.2[52]
Table 3 Ongoing clinical trials of immunotherapy in biliary tract carcinoma
AgentTreatment regimenPhaseEstimated date of completionSponsoring InstitutionIdentification number
Cytokine induced killer cellsCytokine induced killer cell monotherapyI/IIMay, 2016Siriraj HospitalNCT01868490
Tumor infiltrating lymphocytesTumor infiltrating lymphocytes + IL-2 + cyclophosphamide + fludarabineIIDecember, 2019National Cancer InstituteNCT01174121
Poly-ICLCCyclophosphamide + radiation therapy + TACE + poly-ICLCI/IIJuly, 2014Rutgers, the State University of New JerseyNCT00553683