Systematic Reviews
Copyright ©The Author(s) 2019.
World J Gastrointest Oncol. Mar 15, 2019; 11(3): 250-263
Published online Mar 15, 2019. doi: 10.4251/wjgo.v11.i3.250
Table 1 Demographic data and study characteristics
Ref.EnrollmentStudy designNon ICG groupNo. of patients (M/F)Median age (range)Neoadjuvant therapyOperative techniqueDye and doseTiming of ICGAImaging systemChange of procedureMINOR score
Shimada et al[40]2008-2011 (Japan)Prospective cohortNo36 GT (29/7)67 (49-81)8 CTOpen surgery2.5 mg DiagnogreenAfter GT creationPDESuperdrainage (5)6a
Feasibility1 RTCervical AS
Kubota et al[18]2010-2011 (Japan)Prospective cohortNo4 GT (3/1)69 (64-71)4 CTOpen surgery0.5 g/kgAfter GT creationHEMSNo4a
FeasibilityCervical AS
Murawa et al[19]2009-2010 (Poland)Prospective cohortNo15 (13/2)Mean 56 (54-74)0Not reported25 mgAfter GT creationICViewEnd-to-end (4)6a
FeasibilityCervical AS
Pacheco et al[20]2010-2011 (United States)Retrospective cohortNo11 (NR)Mean 56 (SD ± 9)7 CRTOpen surgeryNot reportedAfter GT creationSPYNo4a
Feasibility- 10 ICGA good ASCervical AS
- 1 ICGA poor ASTranshiatal
Kumagai et al[21]2013 (Japan)Prospective cohortNo20 (16/4)Mean 68 (50-79)0Open surgery2.5 mg DiagnogreenAfter GT creationPDENo13a
FeasibilityCervical AS
Rino et al[22]2009-2013 (Japan)Prospective cohortNo33 (29/4)Mean 68 (NR)Not reportedNot reported2.5 mg DiagnogreenAfter GT creationPDENo4a
FeasibilityThoracic AS
Ivor Lewis
Sarkaria et al[23]2012-2013 (United States)Prospective cohortNo30 (22/8)59 (37-76)24 CRTRAMIE10 mgBefore GT creationFireFlyNo6a
FeasibilityCervical + thoracic AS
Ivor Lewis + McKeown
Hodari et al[25]2011-2014 (United States)Retrospective cohortYes54 (44/10)65 (45-81)38 CRTRAMIENot reportedBefore anastomosis during anastomosisFireFlyGuided AS (39)6b
Historical case control- 39 ICGAThoracic AS
- 15 non ICGAIvor Lewis
Campbell et al[26]2007-2013 (United States)Retrospective cohortYes90 (74/16)62 (22-81)6 CTMIE + Hybrid + Open5 mgAfter GT creationSPYGuided AS (21)15b
Historical case control- 21 ICGA54 CRTThoracic AS
- 60 non ICGAIvor Lewis
- 9 Doppler
Yukaya et al[27]2013-2014 (Japan)Prospective cohortNo27 (26/1)67 (40-86)Not reportedNot reported0,1 mg/kg DiagnogreenAfter GT creationHEMSNo11a
FeasibilityCervical AS
Zehetner et al[28]2008-2011 (United States)Prospective cohortNo150 (125/25)67 (IQR 57-74)67 CRTMIE + Open Cervical AS2.5 mgAfter GT creationSPYGuided AS (95)13b
Case controlled- 6 delayed AS = excludedTranshiatal + McKeown
- 95 ICGA good AS
- 49 ICGA poor AS
Koyonagi et al[30]2014-2015 (Japan)Prospective cohortNo40 (34/6)68 (26-82)11 CTNot reported2.5 or 1.25 mg DiagnogreenAfter GT creationPDENo17b
Case controlled- 25 ICGA good AS4 CRTCervical AS
- 15 ICGA poor AS
Schlottmann et al[33]NR (United States)Prospective cohortNo5 (3/2)59 (56-70)1 CRTHybrid5 mgBefore anastomosisIMAGE1Guided AS (5)8a
FeasibilityThoracic ASICG-pulsion- Resection (2)
Ivor Lewis
Kitagawa et al[29,34]2011-2017 (Japan)Retrospective cohortNo72 (57/15)Mean 66 (SD ±7)60 CTMIE + Hybrid5 mgBefore GT creationHEMSGuided AS (26)18b
Case controlled- 26 ICGA2 CRTCervical ASAfter GT creationGuided GT (46)
- 46 ICGA-LMMMcKeown- End-to-end (4)
(line marking method)- Superdrainage (1)
Ohi et al[32,35]2000-2015 (Japan)Retrospective cohortYes120 (101/19)68 (IQR 63-74)56 Not reportedOpen + Hybrid2.5 mg DiagnogreenAfter GT creationPDEGuided AS 60 s (59)15b
Historical case control- 59 ICGACervical AS- End-to-end (3)
- 61 non ICGA- Supercharge/drain (1)
- Manubriotomy (5)
Karampiris et al[36]2010-2016 (Germany)Retrospective cohortYes90 (65/23 + 2 NR)Mean 62 (SD ± 9)69 CTOpen + Hybrid7.5 mgAfter GT creationPinPointGuided AS (33)16b
Historical case control- 35 ICGA25 RTcervical + thoracic AS- Resection (26)
- 33 ICGA good ASThoracophrenico + McKeown
- 2 ICGA poor AS
- 55 non ICGA
Noma et al[37]2010-2016 (Japan)Retrospective cohortYes285 (244/41)Mean 65 (SD ± 8)129 CTOpen+ Hybrid + MIE12.5 mg DiagnogreenAfter GT creationPDEGuided AS 30 s (71)17b
Historical case control- 71 ICGA21 CRTCervical AS- extended mobilization
Case matched- 214 non ICGAMcKeown-Supercharge/drain (1)
Dalton et al[38]2014-2016 (United States)Retrospective cohortYes40 (32/8)Mean 64 (SD ± 10)36 Not reportedMIE7.5 mgAfter GT creationPinPointGuided AS (20)17b
Historical case control- 20 ICGAThoracic AS- Resection (6)
- 20 non ICGAIvor Lewis
Kumagai et al[39]2014-2017 (Japan)Prospective cohortNo70 (59/11)71 (46-82)Not reportedNot reported2.5 mg DiagnogreenAfter GT creationPDEGuided AS 90 s (70)8a
FeasibilityCervical AS- Resection (35)
Table 2 Influence of Indocyanine green fluorescence angiography on intraoperative decisions and on anastomotic leakage
Ref.Entire cohort n = 1186ICGA study group n = 752Non ICGA n = 434
ICGA good perfused AS, n = 592ICGA good perfused altered AS, n = 93ICGA poor perfused AS, n = 67
Shimada et al[40]3/362/311/5 Superdrainage--
Kubota et al[18]0/40/4---
Murawa et al[19]1/151/110/4 End-to-end--
Pacheco et al[20]2/111/10-1/1-
Kumagai et al[21]2/202/20---
Rino et al[22]5/335/33---
Sarkaria et al[23]2/302/30---
Hodari et al[25]3/540/39--3/15
Campbell et al[26]12/900/21--12/69
Yukaya et al[27]9/279/27---
Zehetner et al[28]24/1442/95-22/49-
Koyonagi et al[30]7/400/25-7/15-
Schlottmann et al[33]0/50/30/2 resection--
Kitagawa et al[29,34]7/723/41 ICG-LMM0/5 ICG-LMM--
4/26 ICG- 0/4 End-to-end
- 0/1 Superdrainage
Ohi et al[32,35]10/1200/501/9-9/61
- 0/3 End-to-end
- 1/1 Supercharge/drain
- 0/5 Manubriotomy
Karampiris et al[36]13/900/71/26 Resection2/210/55
Noma et al[37]60/2856/700/1 Supercharge/drain-54/214
Dalton et al[38]3/400/142/6 Resection-1/20
Kumagai et al[39]1/700/351/35 Resection--