Published online Jan 25, 2016. doi: 10.4253/wjge.v8.i2.104
Peer-review started: May 25, 2015
First decision: August 16, 2015
Revised: September 7, 2015
Accepted: December 1, 2015
Article in press: December 2, 2015
Published online: January 25, 2016
Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) was introduced in 1982 and has since become a popular advanced procedure for diagnosis and therapeutic intervention. Initially, EUS was most commonly used for the diagnosis of pancreatobiliary diseases and tissue acquisition. EUS was first used for guided cholangiography in 1996, followed by EUS-guided biliary drainage in 2001. Advancements in equipment and endoscopic accessories have led to an expansion of EUS-guided procedures, which now include EUS-guided drainage of intra-abdominal abscesses or collections, intra-vascular treatment of refractory variceal and nonvariceal bleeding, transmural pancreatic drainage, common bile duct stone clearance, enteral feeding tube placement and entero-enteric anastomosis. Patients with surgically altered upper gastrointestinal anatomies have greatly benefited from EUS also. This systematic review describes and discusses EUS procedures performed in uncommon diseases and conditions, as well as applications on more vulnerable patients such as young children and pregnant women. In these cases, routine approaches do not always apply, and thus may require the use of innovative and unconventional techniques. Increased knowledge of such special applications will help increase the success rates of these procedures and provide a foundation for additional advances and utilizations of the technique.
Core tip: This article reviews the clinical applications of endoscopic ultrasound-guided interventions reported to date, including drainage of intra-abdominal collections, gallbladder and pancreas. Procedures used in pregnant women and children are also described. The aim of this review was to promote knowledge of special clinical applications in which endoscopic ultrasound is applicable.