Published online Jul 16, 2012. doi: 10.4253/wjge.v4.i7.306
Revised: April 30, 2012
Accepted: July 1, 2012
Published online: July 16, 2012
Endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography is the most appropriate technique for treating common bile duct and pancreatic duct stenosis secondary to benign and malignant diseases. Even if the procedure is performed by skillful endoscopist, there are patients in whom endoscopic stent placement is not possible. Common causes of failure include complex peri-papillary diverticula, prior surgery procedures, tumor involvement of the papilla, biliary sphincter stenosis, and impacted stones. Percutaneous trans-hepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) and surgical intervention carry morbidity and mortality. Recently endoscopic ultrasonography-guided biliary drainage has been reported as an alternative technique. Endoscopic ultrasonography-guided biliary drainage using either direct access or a rendezvous technique has attracted attention as an alternative procedure to PTBD, with a technical success between 75%-100% and with low complication rate. We have reviewed published data on EUS guided biliary drainage procedures with the aim of summarizing the efficacy and safety of this promising method.