Copyright ©The Author(s) 2017.
World J Hepatol. Apr 28, 2017; 9(12): 567-585
Published online Apr 28, 2017. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v9.i12.567
Figure 1
Figure 1 Ethanol metabolism in the hepatocyte. 1Ethanol inhibits the peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor α and adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase with stimulation of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1, a membrane bound transcript factor to promote lipogenesis. ADH: Alcohol dehydrogenase; ALDH: Aldehyde dehydrogenase; NADH: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide.
Figure 2
Figure 2 Acetaldehyde induced gut permeability with endotoxemia and inflammatory cascade. LPS: Lipopolysaccharide; TLR-4: Toll-like receptor type 4; ROS: Reactive oxygen species; NADPH: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase; NFKB: Nuclear factor kappa beta; JNK: c-Jun N-terminal kinase; AP-1: Activator protein 1; ICAM-1: Intracellular adhesion molecule 1; VCAM-1: Vascular adhesion protein 1; IL-8: Interleukin 8; CCL 2: C-C motif ligand; TNFα: Tumor necrosis factor alpha; IL-1: Interleukin 1; IL-6: Interleukin 6.