Published online Jun 27, 2014. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v6.i6.384
Revised: March 16, 2014
Accepted: May 31, 2014
Published online: June 27, 2014
Core tip: In occult Hepatitis B infection (OBI), hepatitis B virus reactivation is more common in anti-HIV-positive subjects, in those in onco-hematological settings, in patients who undergo hemopoietic stem cell transplantation and in those treated with anti-CD20 or anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody. Reactivation may be severe and in nearly 20% of cases it may take a life-threatening course. The use of nucleot(s)ide analogues to prevent this reactivation is mandatory in hepatitis B surface antigen-negative/anti-hepatitis B core-positive patients in all conditions of strong and/or prolonged immunosuppression. We describe the characteristics of OBI in onco-hematological and rheumatological diseases, in solid cancers and in HIV infection.