Published online Jun 27, 2013. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v5.i6.311
Revised: May 10, 2013
Accepted: May 18, 2013
Published online: June 27, 2013
Core tip: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common and deadly cancers worldwide, there are multiple non-viral factors have been implicated in the development of HCC, hemochromatosis, obesity, diabetes, alcohol and tobacco have consistently been shown to dramatically increase the rate of HCC. Oral contraceptive, aflatoxin, pesticides exposure and betel quid chewing also increase HCC risk, in addition, Wilson disease, α-1 antitrypsin deficiency, porphyries, autoimmune hepatitis, Schistosoma japonicum infection associated with positive hepatitis B surface antigen, and thorotrast-ray are contributing in the prevalence of the disease. Moreover, primary biliary cirrhosis, congestive liver disease and family history of liver cancer play a significant role of disease progression.