Chronic hepatitis B virus monoinfection at a university hospital in Zambia
Michael J Vinikoor, Edford Sinkala, Annie Kanunga, Mutinta Muchimba, Bright Nsokolo, Paul Kelly, Tropical Gastroenterology and Nutrition Group, School of Medicine, University of Zambia, Lusaka 50110, Zambia
Michael J Vinikoor, Roma Chilengi, Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia, Lusaka 34681, Zambia
Michael J Vinikoor, Michael S Saag, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, United States
Gilles Wandeler, Department of Infectious Diseases, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, Bern 3012, Switzerland
Gilles Wandeler, Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Bern 3012, Switzerland
Joseph Mulenga, Zambia National Blood Transfusion Service, Private Bag RW1X Ridgeway, Lusaka 50110, Zambia
Tina Chisenga, Zambian Ministry of Health, Ndeke House, Lusaka 30205, Zambia
Debika Bhattacharya, Department of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90035, United States
Graham Foster, Paul Kelly, Blizard Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 2AT, United Kingdom
Michael W Fried, Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27514, United States
Author contributions: Vinikoor MJ, Sinkala E and Kelly P conceived the study; Vinikoor MJ, Sinkala E, Kanunga A and Muchimba M managed study implementation; Vinikoor MJ wrote the first draft of the manuscript; all authors provided critical review of the analysis, read and approved the final manuscript.
Supported by School of Medicine at University of Alabama at Birmingham; Fogarty International Center, No. K01TW009998; National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, U.S. National Institutes of Health, No. U01AI069924; and Swiss National Science Foundation (to Wandeler G), No. PZ0093_154730.
Institutional review board statement: The study was reviewed and approved by the Biomedical Research Ethics Committee at University of Zambia (Lusaka, Zambia) and the Institutional Review Board at University of Alabama at Birmingham (Birmingham, AL, United States).
Informed consent statement: All participants provided written informed consent prior to study enrollment.
Conflict-of-interest statement: There are no conflicts of interest to report.
Data sharing statement: No additional data are available.
STROBE statement: The STROBE Statement has been adopted.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article which was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/
Correspondence to: Michael J Vinikoor, MD, Assistant Professor, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, BBRB 256, 845 19th Street South, Birmingham, AL 35294, United States. email@example.com
Received: April 26, 2018
Peer-review started: April 26, 2018
First decision: May 9, 2018
Revised: May 23, 2018
Accepted: July 9, 2018
Article in press: July 10, 2018
Published online: September 27, 2018