Published online Apr 27, 2021. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v13.i4.504
Peer-review started: August 17, 2020
First decision: October 21, 2020
Revised: November 24, 2020
Accepted: December 13, 2020
Article in press: December 13, 2020
Published online: April 27, 2021
Diagnosis of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus (HCV) can be difficult in chronic kidney disease (CKD) individuals undergoing hemodialysis, coagulopathy individuals and people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) due to the difficulty of blood sample collection by venipuncture, remote location and lack of health care.
There is no information regarding the performance of electrochemiluminescence (ECLIA) for the detection of hepatitis B virus and HCV markers in dried blood spot (DBS) samples in key populations, such as individuals with coagulopathies, CKD patients and people living with HIV.
To investigate the putative influence of HIV infection as well as pathophysiological alterations in individuals with coagulopathies (hemophilia and von Willebrand disease) or CKD in the performance of optimized ECLIA for the detection of HBsAg, anti-HBc and anti-HCV markers in DBS samples.
The ECLIA technique was used for the evaluation of HBsAg, anti-HBc, and anti-HCV tests in DBS samples of CKD individuals undergoing hemodialysis, coagulopathy individuals and people living with HIV.
HBsAg detection presented sensitivities of 100% among coagulopathy and CKD patients and low sensitivity (85.0%) in people living with HIV. Anti-HBc detection had the best performance in people living with HIV followed by coagulopathy and CKD patients. Anti-HCV detection showed sensitivities above 83.0% in all groups. Specificities of these assays varied from 88.9% to 100%. Estimated prevalence was similar among serum and DBS except for the anti-HBc marker.
This study demonstrated the utility of HBsAg, anti-HBc and anti-HCV detection in DBS using ECLIA in high-risk populations.
Automated assays such as ECLIA using DBS increases diagnostic speed, generating the diagnosis of many samples at once, which can be important during potential outbreaks in hemotherapy clinics.