Observational Study
Copyright ©The Author(s) 2021. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Hepatol. Dec 27, 2021; 13(12): 2150-2160
Published online Dec 27, 2021. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v13.i12.2150
Determination of “indeterminate score” measurements in lean nonalcoholic fatty liver disease patients from western Saudi Arabia
Yasir Mohammed Khayyat
Yasir Mohammed Khayyat, Department of Medicine, Umm Al Qura University, Makkah 13578, Saudi Arabia
Yasir Mohammed Khayyat, Department of Medicine, International Medical Centre, Jeddah 21451, Saudi Arabia
Author contributions: Khayyat YM conceived of and designed the study, collected the data, and wrote the article, providing final approval of the manuscript to be published.
Institutional review board statement: The Institutional Review Board of International Medical Centre, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia provided approval for this study (IRB No. 2019-11-215).
Informed consent statement: The requirement for consent was waived considering that there was no more than minimal risk to the subjects related to performance of FibroScan and blood tests measurements. The waiver was ensured to not adversely affect the rights and welfare of the subjects, in which tests performed were already completed, regardless of the research.
Conflict-of-interest statement: The author declares having no conflicts of interest related to this study and its publication.
Data sharing statement: The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article that was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/Licenses/by-nc/4.0/
Corresponding author: Yasir Mohammed Khayyat, FACP, FRCP (C), MBChB, Associate Professor, Department of Medicine, Umm Al Qura University, Al Abdiyah District, Makkah 13578, Saudi Arabia. ymkhayyat@uqu.edu.sa
Received: March 24, 2021
Peer-review started: March 24, 2021
First decision: June 15, 2021
Revised: June 24, 2021
Accepted: October 17, 2021
Article in press: October 17, 2021
Published online: December 27, 2021
Research background

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is progressively surpassing other aetiologies of chronic liver disease, with its prevalence increasing worldwide. Earlier intervention was advocated to manage cases of less extensive fibrosis before they progress, and this process will involve the conventional invasive detection method of liver biopsy. Due to the increasing emergence of non-obese NAFLD, which is also called lean NAFLD, the need for further study of its phenotype has been recognized and related findings are expected to open new avenues for more accurate detection of fibrosis.

Research motivation

Since lean NAFLD patients are phenotypically healthy, their metabolic syndrome profile is normal. The expected degree of liver fibrosis among these cases is unknown. However, it is well recognized that use of the available noninvasive assessment tools for fibrosis in NAFLD yields a proportion of cases with “indeterminate score” who may require further assessment by liver biopsy.

Research objectives

To identify lean NAFLD characteristics distinguishing from obese NAFLD in terms of the degree of liver fibrosis using noninvasive assessment tools. Additionally, to study predictive factors that may predispose to obtainment of an indeterminate score, which may then be taken into consideration for decision-making on further affirmative evaluation by liver biopsy.

Research methods

NAFLD patients were categorized based on body mass index into lean, overweight and obese groups. Each group underwent assessment by the noninvasive tools of FibroScan and NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS). Group data based upon the subsequent subcategorizations of fibrosis degree (i.e. low, high and indeterminate) was applied to regression analysis to identify factors predictive of obtaining the indeterminate score.

Research results

A total of 1753 patients were recruited and 1262 of these were included in the final analysis. According to body mass index, the patients were grouped as lean (159, 12.6%), overweight (365, 29%) or obese (737, 58.4%). Lower fibrosis score was predominant within all three weight groups. Kappa statistical analysis of the FibroScan and NFS data indicated that lean and obese NAFLD cases had fair agreement between the two tools, while overweight NAFLD cases had moderate agreement. Logistic binary regression analysis performed for predictive factors of the indeterminate score obtained by NFS indicated age as a predictive factor in all three weight groups, and serum alanine aminotransferase and body mass index value as predictive in the overweight and obese groups, respectively.

Research conclusions

The lean NAFLD group showed a metabolic profile similar to healthy individuals but having a lower degree of fibrosis than their overweight and obese counterparts. The limitation of indeterminate score by NFS among obese NAFLD patients is similar to that with the lean NAFLD group; unfortunately, this is not explained by the fact that lean body mass index patients receive a more precise measurement of fibrosis than their obese counterparts. Factors that play a role in lean NAFLD patients obtaining an indeterminate score may be applied to overweight and obese counterparts; these being age and serum alanine aminotransferase of the patients.

Research perspectives

Considering lean individuals as a latent undiagnosed group among NAFLD cases, efforts to understand and properly evaluate their underlying liver fibrosis still requires systematic consideration. From the perspective of aiming to apply less invasive tools for clinical assessment of liver fibrosis, further data are needed to ascertain the benefits and limitations of the available noninvasive tools, in order to design an approach for accurate assessment of fibrosis in this newly recognized NAFLD group.