Published online Jun 18, 2016. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v8.i17.731
Peer-review started: January 31, 2016
First decision: March 31, 2016
Revised: May 2, 2016
Accepted: May 31, 2016
Article in press: June 2, 2016
Published online: June 18, 2016
AIM: To assess how the application of different types of markers affects the tracking accuracy of CyberKnife’s.
METHODS: Fifteen patients were recruited and subjected to the ultrasound-guided placement of markers. Two different type of needles 25 gauge (G) and 17 G containing two different fiducial marker, gold notched flexible anchor wire 0.28 mm × 10 mm (25 G needle) and gold cylindrical grain 1 mm × 4 mm (17 G), were used. Seven days after the procedure, a CyberKnife planning computed tomography (CT) for the simulation of radiation treatment was performed on all patients. A binary CT score was assigned to the fiducial markers visualization. Also, the CT number was calculated for each fiducial and the values compared with a specific threshold.
RESULTS: For each patient from 1 to 5, intra-hepatic markers were placed (one in 2 patients, three in 8 patients, four in 3 patients, and five in 2 patients). A total of 48 needles were used (thirty-two 17 G and sixteen 25 G) and 48 gold markers were placed (32 Grain shaped markers and 16 Gold Anchor). The result showed that the CT visualization of the grain markers was better than the anchor markers (P = 5 × 10-9). Furthermore, the grain markers were shown to present minor late complications (P = 3 × 10-6), and the best CT threshold number (P = 0.0005).
CONCLUSION: The study revealed that the Gold Anchor fiducial marker is correlated with a greater number of late minor complications and low visualization by the CT.
Core tip: Robotic radiosurgery can employ different systems for the localization of the neoplastic targets to treat. The purpose of this study is to assess how the application of different types of markers affects the tracking accuracy of CyberKnife’s. Fifteen patients have been recruited and analyzed for the study and two types of markers were used for the procedure. The computed tomography (CT) visualization of grain markers was better than anchor markers P = 5 × 10-9. Grain markers presented minor late complications of P = 3 × 10-6, and the best CT threshold number. The study revealed that the Gold Anchor fiducial marker is correlated with a greater number of late minor complication.