Published online Jun 8, 2016. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v8.i16.691
Peer-review started: January 15, 2016
First decision: March 23, 2016
Revised: April 8, 2016
Accepted: May 17, 2016
Article in press: May 27, 2016
Published online: June 8, 2016
AIM: To re-examine whether hepatic vein thrombosis (HVT) (classical Budd-Chiari syndrome) and hepatic vena cava-Budd Chiari syndrome (HVC-BCS) are the same disorder.
METHODS: A systematic review of observational studies conducted in adult subjects with primary BCS, hepatic vein outflow tract obstruction, membranous obstruction of the inferior vena cava (IVC), obliterative hepatocavopathy, or HVT during the period of January 2000 until February 2015 was conducted using the following databases: Cochrane Library, CINAHL, MEDLINE, PubMed and Scopus.
RESULTS: Of 1299 articles identified, 26 were included in this study. Classical BCS is more common in women with a pure hepatic vein obstruction (49%-74%). HVC-BCS is more common in men with the obstruction often located in both the inferior vena cava and hepatic veins (14%-84%). Classical BCS presents with acute abdominal pain, ascites, and hepatomegaly. HVC-BCS presents with chronic abdominal pain and abdominal wall varices. Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) are the most common etiology of classical BCS (16%-62%) with the JAK2V617-F mutation found in 26%-52%. In HVC-BCS, MPN are found in 4%-5%, and the JAK2V617-F mutation in 2%-5%. Classical BCS responds well to medical management alone and 1st line management of HVC-BCS involves percutaneous recanalization, with few managed with medical management alone.
CONCLUSION: Systematic review of recent data suggests that classical BCS and HVC-BCS may be two clinically different disorders that involve the disruption of hepatic venous outflow.
Core tip: With improved diagnostic methods, the terminology for Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) has expanded discordantly. This systematic review discusses recent population studies of BCS and proposes the delineation of two clinically unique syndromes.