Published online Jul 18, 2015. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v7.i14.1807
Peer-review started: January 22, 2015
First decision: April 10, 2015
Revised: May 7, 2015
Accepted: May 27, 2015
Article in press: May 28, 2015
Published online: July 18, 2015
The management of hepatic metastatic disease from solid tumors in adults has been extensively described and resection of metastatic liver lesions from colorectal adenocarcinoma, renal adenocarcinoma, breast cancer, testicular cancer, and neuroendocrine tumors (NET) have demonstrated therapeutic benefits in select patients. However, there are few reports in the literature on the management of hepatic metastatic disease in the pediatric and adolescent populations and the effectiveness of hepatic metastasectomy. This may be due to the much lower incidence of pediatric malignancies and the higher chemosensitivity of childhood tumors which make hepatic metastasectomy less likely to be required. We review liver involvement with metastatic disease from the main pediatric solid tumors, including neuroblastoma and Wilms tumor focusing on the management and treatment options. We also review other solid malignant tumors which may have liver metastases including germ cell tumors, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, osteosarcoma, desmoplastic small round cell tumors and NET. However, these histological subtypes are so rare in the pediatric and adolescent populations that the exact incidence and best management of hepatic metastatic disease are unknown and can only be extrapolated from adult series.
Core tip: Management of hepatic metastatic disease in pediatric and adolescent cancer patients is not as well delineated as for adults due to the lower incidence of pediatric malignancies and the higher chemosensitivity of childhood tumors. We review liver involvement by metastatic disease from the main pediatric and adolescent solid tumors focusing on management and treatment options.