Published online Jul 27, 2012. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v4.i7.218
Revised: July 12, 2012
Accepted: July 21, 2012
Published online: July 27, 2012
AIM: To determine the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in adult human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients with CD4+ T-cell count less than 500/mm3 and without antiretroviral therapy; to describe different HBV-HIV coinfection virological profiles; and to search for factors associated with HBs antigen (HBsAg) presence in these HIV positive patients.
METHODS: During four months (June through September 2006), 491 patients were received in four HIV positive monitoring clinical centers in Abidjan. Inclusion criteria: HIV-1 or HIV-1 and 2 positive patients, age ≥ 18 years, CD4+ T-cell count < 500/mL and formal and signed consent of the patient. Realized blood tests included HIV serology, CD4+ T-cell count, quantitative HIV RNA load and HBV serological markers, such as HBsAg and HBc antibody (anti-HBcAb). We performed HBeAg, anti-HBe antibody (anti-HBeAb), anti-HBc IgM and quantitative HBV DNA load in HBsAg positive patients. Anti-HBsAb had been tested in HIV patients with HBsAg negative and anti-HBcAb-positive. HBV DNA was also tested in 188 anti-HBcAb positive patients with HBsAg negative status and without anti-HBsAb. Univariate analysis (Pearson χ2 test or Fischer exact test) and multivariate analysis (backward step-wise selection logistic regression) were performed as statistical analysis.
RESULTS: Mean age of 491 patients was 36 ± 8.68 years and 73.3% were female. Type-1 HIV was found in 97% and dual-type HIV (type 1 plus type 2) in 3%. World Health Organization (WHO) clinical stage was 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively in 61 (12.4%), 233 (47.5%), 172 (35%) and 25 patients (5.1%). Median CD4+ T-cell count was 341/mm3 (interquartile range: 221-470). One hundred and twelve patients had less than 200 CD4+ T-cell/mm3. Plasma HIV-1 RNA load was elevated (≥ 5 log10 copies/mL) in 221 patients (45%). HBsAg and anti-HBcAb prevalence was respectively 13.4% and 72.9%. Of the 66 HBsAg positive patients, 22 were inactive HBV carriers (33.3%), 21 had HBeAg positive hepatitis (31.8%) and 20 had HBeAg negative hepatitis (30.3%). HBeAg and anti-HBeAb were indeterminate in 3 of them. Occult B infection prevalence (HBsAg negative, anti-HBcAb positive, anti-HBsAb negative and detectable HBV DNA) was 21.3%. Three parameters were significantly associated with the presence of HBsAg: male [odds ratio (OR): 2.2; P = 0.005; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3-3.8]; WHO stage 4 (OR: 3.2; P = 0.01; 95% CI: 1.3-7.9); and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) level higher than the standard (OR: 1.9; P = 0.04; 95% CI: 1.02-3.8).
CONCLUSION: HBV infection prevalence is high in HIV-positive patients. HBeAg positive chronic hepatitis and occult HBV infection are more frequent in HIV-positive patients than in HIV negative ones. Parameters associated with HBsAg positivity were male gender, AIDS status and increased AST level.