Published online Jun 27, 2011. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v3.i6.157
Revised: May 20, 2011
Accepted: May 27, 2011
Published online: June 27, 2011
AIM: To determine the contributions of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), cytokines and liver disease severity to bone mineral density in patients pre-transplantation.
METHODS: Serum IGF-1, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) were measured and the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score calculated in 121 adult patients referred to a single centre for liver transplantation. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and femoral neck were assessed via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Demographics, liver disease etiology, medication use and relevant biochemistry were recorded.
RESULTS: A total of 117 subjects were included, with low BMD seen in 68.6%, irrespective of disease etiology. In multivariable analysis, low body mass index (BMI), increased bone turnover and low IGF-1 were independent predictors of low spinal bone density. At the hip, BMI, IGF-1 and vitamin D status were predictive. Despite prevalent elevations of TNFα and IL-6, levels did not correlate with degree of bone loss. The MELD score failed to predict low BMD in this pre-transplant population.
CONCLUSION: Osteopenia/osteoporosis is common in advanced liver disease. Low serum IGF-1 is weakly predictive but serum cytokine and MELD score fail to predict the severity of bone disease.