Published online Aug 27, 2010. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v2.i8.295
Revised: July 7, 2010
Accepted: July 14, 2010
Published online: August 27, 2010
This editorial reviews the recent evidence showing that Mallory-Denk bodies (MDBs) form in hepatocytes as the result of a drug-induced shift from the 26s proteasome formation to the immunoproteasome formation. The shift is the result of changes in gene expression induced in promoter activation, which is induced by the IFNγ and TNFα signaling pathway. This activates TLR 2 and 4 receptors. The TLR signaling pathway stimulates both the induction of a cytokine proinflammatory response and an up regulation of growth factors. The MDB- forming hepatocytes proliferate as a result of the increase in growth factor expression by the MDB- forming cells, which selectively proliferate in response to drug toxicity. All of these mechanisms are induced by drug toxicity, and are prevented by feeding the methyl donors SAMe and betaine, supporting the epigenetic response of MDB formation.