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Copyright ©2014 Baishideng Publishing Group Co.
World J Stem Cells. Jan 26, 2014; 6(1): 1-10
Published online Jan 26, 2014. doi: 10.4252/wjsc.v6.i1.1
Table 1 Bioreactor systems for hematopoietic differentiation from pluripotent stem cells
Bioreactor typePSC linePerformanceRef.
Spinner flaskhESC lines: H9 and H115-fold expansion in cell number compared to 4-fold in static culture; 5%-6% CD34+ CD31+ cellsCameron et al[27]
RWVMouse ESC line: R1Hematopoietic differentiation in RWV generated more Sca-1+ cells; while spinner flasks generated more c-kit+ progenitorsFridley et al[25]
Microcarrier-based spinner flaskhESC lines: WA01 (H1), WA09 (H9), HuES3, MA09; hiPSC line: IMR90-1DE-53 microcarriers were used. EBs were formed 10 times more efficiently compared to 2-D culture; CFUs were similar to static cultureLu et al[67]
Perfusion bioreactorMouse ESC line: D3 Mouse ESC line: CCEPerfusion promoted hematopoietic differentiation; Perfusion in 3-D fibrous scaffolds supported 2-3 fold higher cell density compared to static culture; comparable CFU percentageWolfe et al[77]; Li et al[24]
Table 2 Effects of shear stress in bioreactors on pluripotent stem cells expansion and differentiation
Shear stressEffect on pluripotencyEffect on differentiationRef.
Agitation in stirred bioreactorsBioreactor-differentiated ESCs retained the ability to express pluripotent markersEBs in bioreactors differentiated into cardiomyocytesShafa et al[73]
Agitation in stirred bioreactors (3 dyne/cm2vs 6 dyne/cm2)Shear stress maintained certain pluripotent markers (e.g., Nanog, Rex-1)Reduced spontaneous differentiationGareau et al[72]
Agitation in stirred bioreactorsA subpopulation of bioreactor-differentiated ESCs expressed the pluripotent markersDifferentiation into osteogenic and chondrogenic cell typesTaiani et al[74]
Agitation in stirred bioreactors (glass ball impeller, < 1.52 dyne/cm2)Homogeneous aggregate size distributionCells maintained the differentiation potential into hematopoietic cellsWang et al[79]
Rotary orbital shaking (< 2.5 dyne/cm2)Shear stress up-regulated genes specific for endoderm and mesoderm differentiationSpontaneous three-germ layer differentiationSargent et al[63]
Perfusion flow (1.5-15 dyne/cm2)Shear stress promoted early differentiation of ESCsShear stress promoted hematopoietic and endothelial differentiationWolfe et al[77]
Agitation in microcarrier-based bioreactorsHES-2 line and hiPSC line IMR-90 were shear sensitive, showing the down-regulation of pluripotent markersShear stress induced spontaneous differentiationLeung et al[76]