Systematic Review
Copyright ©The Author(s) 2019.
World J Stem Cells. Nov 26, 2019; 11(11): 1005-1019
Published online Nov 26, 2019. doi: 10.4252/wjsc.v11.i11.1005
Table 1 Example of the research structure in PubMed
The same search strategy was used in the other databases
PubMedHuman Breastmilk OR Human Milk OR
(Title/Abstract)Breast Feeding OR Lactation
PubMedStem Cells Or Progenitor Cells OR
(Title/Abstract)Mother Cells
Table 2 Details of selected articles
Ref.PurposeNumber of samplesVol. of milk collectedIncome cellcells/ mLMarkers - FCMarkers - IFPCRWBDifferentiation cellConclusion
Patki et al[12]To study the multipotent differentiation capacity of the long-term MSC culture.3515 mL2.5 x 106-3.0 x 106/mLCD29, CD33, CD34, CD44, CD45, CD73, SCA-1.Nestin, Vimentin, Smooth Muscle Actin and E-Cadherin.Not doneNot doneAdipogenic, chondroge-nic, osteogenic lineages.Mesenchy-mal stem cells isolated from human breast milk have cellular potency to differentiate into different cell types.
Hassiotou et al[13]To examine regulators of self-renewal of hBSCs and their plasticity and potential to differentiate into cell types outside the mammary lineage.> 705-200 mLNot doneSSEA-4 e TRA-1-60 / TRA-1-81.OCT4, SOX2 and Nanog.TRA-1-60 / TRA-1-81, Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and Nanog genes.Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog.Osteogenic, adipogenic, chondroge-nic, neuronal, pancreatic, hepatocyte, cardiomyo-cytes, mammary differentiation and teratoma.Stem cells in breast milk contain pluripotency properties.
Hosseini et al[14]To differentiate the breast milk-derived stem cells toward neural stem cells and then into the neurons and neuroglia.Not present5-200 mL4.0 x 104/mLNot doneNestin, Nanog, β-tubulin III, O4, GFAP, Oct4, Sox2, CD44, CD105, CD106, CD133.Not doneNot doneNeurosphe-res, neurons, oligodendro-cytes, and astrocytes.The breast milk-derived stem cells showed the capability to be differentia-ted into neural cell lineages and their similarity to both embryonic and mesenchy-mal stem cells makes them a good candidate for cell therapy in neurodegenerative diseases.
Sani et al[15]To examine the pluripotency of the human breast milk-derived cells.55-50 mLNot doneCD90 CD44, CD144, CD 271, CD123, CD133, CD73, CD 106, CD146, CD45, CD 105,CD34, SSEA-4, TRA-60–1, CD 15/SSEA-1.Oct4, Sox2, Nanog and CK18.SRY geneNot doneOsteogenic and adipogenic lineages.Most of the cells found are mesenchy-mal stem cells, but, cells similar to embryonic stem cells are also present.
Sani et al[16]To examine the differentiation potential of the hBSCs into functional hepatocytes in vitro.155-50 mLNot doneNot doneCK18, CK19, albumin, alpha-fetoprotein.AFP, CK19, CYP2B6, HNF4, G6P.Not doneHepatocyte lineage.The hBSCs demonstrate the ability to express many key factors that are important in liver functions.
Table 3 CD and their functions
CD15/SSEA-1Stage-specific embryonic antigen, also marker for primitive mesenchymal cells in human bone marrow.Anjos-Afonso et al[17]
CD29Expressed in myoepithelial cells including mammary gland cells.Indumathi et al[5]
CD33Present in immune cells of myeloid lineage.
CD34Marker of hematopoietic stem cells, vascular endothelium and fibroblasts of some tissues.Indumathi et al[5]
CD44Marker of myoepithelial cells.Indumathi et al[5]
CD45Membrane protein present in lymphocytes and absent in erythrocytes and platelets. This protein is lost during the maturation of red cells in the bone marrow. Because it is present in lymphocytes, it is called Common Leukocyte Antigen.Notta et al[18]
CD73Marker expressed in mesenchymal stem cells, possessing enzymatic activity and catalytic dephosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate converting it into adenosine.Indumathi et al[5]
CD90Marker of mesenchymal stem cells.Indumathi et al[5]
CD105Marker of mesenchymal stem cells.Indumathi et al[5]
CD106Acts on the cell cycle of T and B lymphocytes, in addition to being involved in tissue repair.Indumathi et al[5]
CD123The IL-3 receptor subunit plays an important role in the growth and differentiation of hematopoietic progenitor cells.Testa et al[19]
CD133Marker of hematopoietic stem cells.Indumathi et al[5]
CD144Also known as VE-cadherin and cadherin-5, it is a calcium-dependent transmembrane cell adhesion molecule, located in the intercellular borders of endothelial cells, hematopoietic stem cells and perineural cells.Dejana et al[20]
CD146Mediated cell-cell interactions, cytoskeletal remodeling, angiogenesis, and migration of endothelial cells.Sorrentino et al[21]
CD271Transmembrane protein found in neuronal axons, Schwann cells, and perineural cells of peripheral nerves. In addition, it can be found in some epithelial, mesenchymal, and lymphoid tissues.Lv et al[22]
SSEA-4Marker of mesenchymal stem cells derived from the BM, acting mainly on cell proliferation.Lv et al[22]
TRA-60-1Related to pluripotency of human embryonic stem cells, and lost in cell differentiation.Schopperle et al[23]
NESTINMultipotent, neural, medullary, pancreatic, and epithelial stem cell marker.Toma et al[24]
VIMENTINCytoskeletal intermediate filament protein, associated with the nuclear and plasma membrane, maintains the position of the nucleus and the mitotic spindle during the life of the cell, and is found mainly in mesenchymal stem cells.Mendez et al[25]
SMAMarker of myoepithelial cells.Twigger et al[26]
E-CADHERINCalcium-dependent cell adhesion molecule, with important function in the formation and maintenance of normal tissue architecture, present in epithelial cells of the human mammary gland and epithelial marker of mesenchymal transition in its first passages.Klopp et al[27]
NANOGPluripotency marker.Riekstina et al[28]
β-TUBULIN IIIConsidered an early neuronal marker because the tubulin protein is the main constituent of the microtubules, which are tubular structures that make up the cytoskeleton and they are involved in the transport of organelles and the elongation of axons and dendrites.Kapitein et al[29]
O4Specific marker of gangliosides expressed by pre-oligodendrocytes and premyelinated oligodendrocytes.Girolamo et al[30]
GFAPGlial fibrillary acidic protein forms subunits of the intermediate filaments of the cellular cytoskeleton, being present in the cytoplasm of the astrocytes.Hol et al[31]
OCT4Pluripotency marker.Riekstina et al[28]
SOX2Controls the undifferentiated and pluripotential state of the CTEs.Young et al[32]
CK18Expressed in the luminal cells of the breast, which synthesize proteins from breast milk.Thomas et al[33]
KLF 4Kruppel like factor 4 is a transcription factor related to pluripotency and cell proliferation potential.Li et al[34]
SCA-1The stem cell antigen 1 is found in stem cells.Holmes et al[35]